Advertisement

Mood effects of 24-hour tryptophan depletion in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders

  • Tineke Klaassen
    Affiliations
    Brain and Behaviour Institute, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology (TK, WJR, AvS, AH, HMvP), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Search for articles by this author
  • Wim J Riedel
    Correspondence
    Address reprint requests to Wim J. Riedel, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, University of Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, NL-6200 MD MAASTRICHT, The Netherlands
    Affiliations
    Brain and Behaviour Institute, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology (TK, WJR, AvS, AH, HMvP), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Search for articles by this author
  • Astrid van Someren
    Affiliations
    Brain and Behaviour Institute, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology (TK, WJR, AvS, AH, HMvP), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Search for articles by this author
  • Nicolaas E.P Deutz
    Affiliations
    Department of General Surgery (NEPD), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Search for articles by this author
  • Adriaan Honig
    Affiliations
    Brain and Behaviour Institute, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology (TK, WJR, AvS, AH, HMvP), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Search for articles by this author
  • Herman M van Praag
    Affiliations
    Brain and Behaviour Institute, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology (TK, WJR, AvS, AH, HMvP), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Background: Acute tryptophan (TRP) depletion was evaluated in healthy volunteers with or without a family history of major affective disorder (FH+ versus FH−).
      Methods: Twenty-seven subjects (16 FH+, 11 FH−) received 100 g of an amino acid mixture with and without TRP according to a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design and a diet devoid of TRP for the next 24 hours.
      Results: The ratio TRP/large neutral amino acids declined to 22% of baseline values after 6 hours, and increased during the night reaching 85% of baseline after 24 hours. Overall, after 6 hours, TRP depletion lead to a lowering of mood, but after 24 hours, these changes were no longer detected. Mood changes and gastrointestinal side effects were significantly more evident in FH+ subjects than in FH− subjects.
      Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis that subjects with a positive family history for depressionare predisposed to increased vulnerability to the adverse consequences of serotonergic imbalance.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Arrindell W.A
        • Ettema J.H.M
        SCL-90. Een multidimensionele psychopathologie indicator [SCL-90. A multidimensional indicator of psychopathology]. Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands1986
        • Benkelfat C
        • Ellenbogen M.A
        • Dean P
        • Palmour R.M
        • Young S.N
        Mood-lowering effect of tryptophan depletion. Enhanced susceptibility in young men at genetic risk for major affective disorders.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994; 51: 687-697
        • Biggio G
        • Fadda F
        • Fanni P
        • Tagliamonte A
        • Gessa G.L
        Rapid depletion of serum tryptophan, brain tryptophan, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid by a tryptophan-free diet.
        Life Sci. 1974; 14: 1321-1329
        • Carpenter L.L
        Tryptophan depletion during continuous CSF sampling in healthy human subjects.
        Neuropsychopharmacology. 1998; 19: 26-35
        • Charney E.A
        • Weissman M.M
        Epidemiology of depressive and manic syndromes.
        in: Georgotas A Cancro R Depression and Mania. Elsevier, New York1988: 26-52
        • Cleare A.J
        • Bond A.J
        The effect of tryptophan depletion and enhancement on subjective and behavioral aggression in normal male subjects.
        Psychopharmacology. 1995; 118: 72-81
        • Delgado P.L
        • Charney D.S
        • Price L.H
        • Aghajanian G.K
        • Landis H
        • Heninger G.R
        Serotonin function and the mechanism of antidepressant action.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990; 47: 411-418
        • Delgado P.L
        • Charney D.S
        • Price L.H
        • Landis H
        • Heninger G.R
        Neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of dietary tryptophan restriction in healthy subjects.
        Life Sci. 1989; 45: 2323-2332
        • Delgado P.L
        • Price L.H
        • Miller H.L
        • et al.
        Rapid serotonin depletion as a provocative challenge test for patients with major depression.
        Psychopharmacol Bull. 1991; 27: 321-330
        • Ellenbogen M.A
        • Young S.N
        • Dean P
        • Palmour R.N
        • Benkelfat C
        Mood response to∼∼ acute tryptophan depletion in healthy volunteers.
        Neuropsychopharmacology. 1996; 15: 465-474
        • Endicott J
        • Andreasen N.C
        • Spitzer R.L
        Family History-Research Diagnostic Criteria. Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York1975
        • Fernstrom J.D
        Effects of the diet on brain neurotransmitters.
        Metabolism. 1977; 26: 207-223
        • Fernstrom J.D
        Dietary precursors and brain neurotransmitter formation.
        Ann Rev Med. 1981; 32: 413-425
        • Fernstrom M.H
        • Fernstrom J.D
        Brain tryptophan concentrations and serotonin synthesis remain responsive to food consumption after the ingestion of sequential meals.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1995; 61: 312-319
        • Kent J.M
        • Coplan J.D
        • Martinez J
        • Karmally W
        • Papp L.A
        • Gorman J.M
        Ventilatory effects of tryptophan depletion in panic disorder.
        Psychiatry Res. 1996; 64: 83-90
        • Lam R.W
        • Zis A.P
        • Grewal A
        • Delgado P.L
        • Charney D.S
        • Krystal J.H
        Effects of rapid tryptophan depletion in patients with seasonal affective disorder in remission after light therapy.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996; 53: 41-44
        • Lin R.C
        • Costa E
        • Neff N.H
        • Wang C.T
        • Ngai S.H
        In vivo measurement of 5-hydroxytryptamine turnover rate in the rat brain from the conversion of C14-tryptophan to C14-5-hydroxytryptamine.
        J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1969; 170: 232-238
        • McNair D.M
        • Lorr M
        • Droppleman L.F
        Manual for the Profile of Mood States. Educational and Industrial Testing Service, San Diego1971
        • Menkes D.B
        • Coates D.C
        • Fawcett J.P
        Acute tryptophan depletion aggravates premenstrual syndrome.
        J Affect Disord. 1994; 32: 37-44
        • Moeller F
        • Dougherty D
        • Swann A
        • Collins D
        • Davis C
        • Cherek D
        Tryptophan depletion and aggressive responding in healthy males.
        Psychopharmacology. 1996; 126: 97-103
        • Moja E.A
        • Antinoro E
        • Cesa-Bianchi M
        • Gessa G.L
        Increase in Stage 4 after ingestion of a tryptophan-free diet in humans.
        Pharmacol Res Comm. 1984; 16: 909-914
        • Nishizawa S
        • Benkelfat C
        • Young S.N
        • et al.
        Differences between males and females in rates of serotonin synthesis in human brain.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997; 94: 5308-5313
        • Park S.B
        • Coull J.T
        • McShane R.H
        • et al.
        Tryptophan depletion in normal volunteers produces selective impairments in learning and memory.
        Neuropharmacology. 1994; 33: 575-588
        • Reilly J.G
        • McTavish S.F.B
        • Young A.H
        Rapid depletion of plasma tryptophan.
        J Psychopharmacol. 1997; 11: 381-392
        • Riedel W.J
        • Klaassen T
        • Deutz N.E.P
        • Van Someren A
        • Van Praag H.M
        Tryptophan depletion in normal volunteers produces selective impairment in memory consolidation.
        Psychopharmacology. 1999; 141: 362-369
        • Schaechter J.D
        • Wurtman R.J
        Tryptophan availability modulates serotonin release from rat hypothalamic slices.
        J Neurochem. 1989; 53: 1925-1933
        • Sheehan D
        • Lecrubier Y
        • Janavs J
        • et al.
        MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. University of South Florida, Tampa1994
        • Smith K.A
        • Clifford E.M
        • Hockney R.A
        • Clark D.M
        Effect of tryptophan depletion on mood in male and female volunteers.
        Human Psychopharmacol Clin Exp. 1997; 12: 111-117
        • Smith K.A
        • Fairburn C.G
        • Cowen P.J
        Relapse of depression after rapid depletion of tryptophan.
        Lancet. 1997; 349: 915-919
        • Smith S.E
        • Pihl R.O
        • Young S.N
        • Ervin F.R
        A test of possible cognitive and environmental influences on the mood lowering effect of tryptophan depletion in normal males.
        Psychopharmacology. 1987; 91: 451-457
        • Spitzer R.L
        • Endicott J
        • Robins E
        Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for a Selected Group of Functional Disorders, Ed. 2. Biometrics Research. New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York1975
        • Van Eijk H.M
        • Huinck M.P
        • Rooyakkers D.R
        • Deutz N.E
        Automated simultaneous isolation and quantitation of labeled amino acid fractions from plasma and tissue by ion-exchange chromatography.
        J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1994; 660: 251-257
        • Van Eijk H.M
        • Rooyakkers D.R
        • Deutz N.E
        Rapid routine determination of amino acids in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with a 2–3 microns Spherisorb ODS II column.
        J Chromatogr. 1993; 620: 143-148
        • Weltzin T.E
        • Fernstrom M.H
        • Fernstrom J.D
        • Neuberger S.K
        • Kaye W.H
        Acute tryptophan depletion and increased food intake and irritability in bulimia nervosa.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1995; 152: 1668-1671
        • Weltzin T.E
        • Fernstrom J.D
        • McConaha C
        • Kaye W.H
        Acute tryptophan depletion in bulimia.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1994; 35: 388-397
        • Young S.N
        • Ervin F.R
        • Pihl R.O
        • Finn P
        Biochemical aspects of tryptophan depletion in primates.
        Psychopharmacology. 1989; 98: 508-511
        • Young S.N
        • Pihl R.O
        • Ervin F.R
        The effect of altered tryptophan levels on mood and behavior in normal human males.
        Clin Neuropharmacol. 1988; 11: S207-S215
        • Young S.N
        • Smith S.E
        • Pihl R.O
        • Ervin F.R
        Tryptophan depletion causes a rapid lowering of mood in normal males.
        Psychopharmacology. 1985; 87: 173-177
        • Zimmermann R.C
        • McDougle C.J
        • Schumacher M
        • et al.
        Effects of acute tryptophan depletion on nocturnal melatonin secretion in humans.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993; 76: 1160-1164