Advertisement

Differential Resting Quantitative Electroencephalographic Alpha Patterns in Women with Environmental Chemical Intolerance, Depressives, and Normals

  • Iris R Bell
    Correspondence
    Dr. Iris Bell, Department of Psychiatry, Tucson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Mail Stop 116A, 3601 S. 6th Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85723.
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Arizona, USA (IRB, GES, EEH),

    Department of Psychology, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Arizona, USA (GES, IRB, CMB, JPK),

    Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Arizona, USA (IRB),

    Department of Psychiatry, Tucson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Tucson, Arizona, USA (IRB).
    Search for articles by this author
  • Gary E Schwartz
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Arizona, USA (IRB, GES, EEH),

    Department of Psychology, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Arizona, USA (GES, IRB, CMB, JPK),

    Department of Neurology, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Arizona, USA (GES),
    Search for articles by this author
  • Elizabeth E Hardin
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Arizona, USA (IRB, GES, EEH),
    Search for articles by this author
  • Carol M Baldwin
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychology, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Arizona, USA (GES, IRB, CMB, JPK),

    Division of Respiratory Sciences (CMB), University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Arizona, USA;
    Search for articles by this author
  • John P Kline
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychology, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Arizona, USA (GES, IRB, CMB, JPK),
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Background: Previous research suggests that a subset of individuals with intolerance to low levels of environmental chemicals have increased levels of premorbid and/or comorbid psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, and somatization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychological profiles and quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) profiles at baseline of women with and without chemical intolerance (CI).
      Methods: Participants were middle-aged women who reported illness from the odor of common chemicals (CI, n = 14), depressives without such intolerances (D, n = 10), and normal controls (N, n = 11). They completed a set of psychological scales and underwent two separate qEEG recording laboratory sessions spaced 1 week apart, at the same time of day for each subject.
      Results: CI were similar to D with increased lifetime histories of physician-diagnosed depression (71% vs. 100%), Symptom Checklist 90 (revised) (SCL-90-R) so-matization scores, Barsky Somatic Symptom Amplification, and perceived life stressfulness, although D had more distress than either CI or N on several other SCL-90-R subscales. CI scored significantly higher on the McLean Limbic Symptom Checklist somatic symptom subscale than did either D or N. On qEEG, CI exhibited significantly greater overall resting absolute alpha activity with eyes closed, especially at the parietal midline site (Pz), and increased (sensitized) frontal alpha from session 1 to 2, in contrast with the D and N groups. D showed right frontal asymmetry in both sessions, in comparison with CI.
      Conclusions: The data indicate that CI with affective distress diverge from both D without chemical intolerance and N in qEEG alpha patterns at resting baseline. Although CI descriptively resemble D with increased psychological distress, the CI’s greater alpha suggests the possibility of a) central nervous system hypo-, not hyper-, activation; and/or b) an overlap with EEG alpha patterns of persons with positive family histories of alcoholism.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Allen JJ
        • Iacono WG
        • Depue RR
        • Arbisi P
        Regional EEG asymmetrics in bipolar seasonal affective disorder before and after phototherapy.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1993; 33: 642-646
        • Antelman SM
        Time-dependent sensitization as the cornerstone for a new approach to pharmacotherapy.
        Drug Dev Res. 1988; 14: 1-30
        • Antelman SM
        Time-dependent sensitization in animals.
        Toxicol Ind Health. 1994; 10: 335-342
        • Antelman SM
        • Caggiula AR
        • Kocan D
        • et al.
        One experience with “lower’ or ”higher’ intensity stressors respectively enhances or diminishes responsiveness to haloperidol weeks later.
        Brain Res. 1991; 566: 276-283
        • Antelman SM
        • Caggiula AR
        • Kiss S
        • Edwards D
        • Kocan D
        • Stiller R
        Neurochemical and physiological effects of cocaine oscillate with sequential drug treatment.
        Neuropsychopharmacology. 1995; 12: 297-306
      1. Ashford NA, Miller CS (in press): Chemical Exposures: Low Levels and High Stakes 2nd ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

        • Barsky AJ
        • Goodson JD
        • Lane RS
        • Cleary PD
        The amplification of somatic symptoms.
        Psychosom Med. 1988; 50: 510-519
        • Bell IR
        Neuropsychiatric aspects of sensitivity to low level chemicals.
        Toxicol Ind Health. 1994; 10: 277-312
        • Bell IR
        Clinically relevant EEG studies and psychophysiological findings.
        Toxicology. 1996; 111: 101-117
      2. Bell IR, Amend D (1994): More cortisol suppression in depressed cacosmics: DST evaluation of chemically sensitive older adults. Presentation at the New Research sessions of the 147th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, Philadelphia, May 21–26.

        • Bell IR
        • Miller CS
        • Schwartz GE
        An olfactory-limbic model of multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1992; 32: 218-242
        • Bell IR
        • Schwartz GE
        • Peterson JM
        • Amend D
        Self-reported illness from chemical odors in young adults without clinical syndromes or occupational exposures.
        Arch Environ Health. 1993; 48: 6-13
        • Bell IR
        • Schwartz GE
        • Peterson JM
        • Amend D
        • Stini WA
        Possible time-dependent sensitization to xenobiotics.
        Arch Environ Health. 1993; 48: 315-327
        • Bell IR
        • Schwartz GE
        • Peterson JM
        • Amend D
        Symptom and personality profiles of young adults from a college student population with self-reported illness from foods and chemicals.
        J Am Coll Nutr. 1993; 12: 693-702
        • Bell IR
        • Amend D
        • Kaszniak AW
        • Schwartz GE
        Memory deficits, sensory impairment, and depression in the elderly.
        Lancet. 1993; 341: 62
        • Bell IR
        • Schwartz GE
        • Amend D
        • Peterson JM
        • Stini WA
        Sensitization to early life stress and response to chemical odors in older adults.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1994; 35: 857-863
        • Bell IR
        • Peterson JM
        • Schwartz GE
        Medical histories and psychological profiles of middle-aged women with and without self-reported illness from environmental chemicals.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 1995; 56: 151-160
        • Bell IR
        • Hardin E
        • Baldwin CM
        • Schwartz GE
        Increased limbic system symptomatology and sensitizability of young adults with chemical and noise sensitivities.
        Environ Res. 1995; 70: 84-97
        • Bell IR
        • Wyatt JK
        • Bootzin RR
        • Schwartz GE
        Slowed reaction time performance on a divided attention task in elderly with environmental chemical odor intolerance.
        Int J Neurosci. 1995; 84: 127-134
        • Bell IR
        • Miller CS
        • Schwartz GE
        • Peterson JM
        • Amend D
        Neuropsychiatric and somatic characteristics of young adults with and without self-reported chemical odor intolerance and chemical sensitivity.
        Arch Environ Health. 1996; 51: 9-21
        • Bell IR
        • Bootzin RR
        • Davis T
        • et al.
        Time-dependent sensitization of plasma beta-endorphin in community elderly with self-reported environmental chemical odor intolerance.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1996; 40: 134-143
        • Bell IR
        • Bootzin RR
        • Ritenbaugh C
        • et al.
        A polysomnographic study of sleep disturbance in community elderly with self-reported environmental chemical odor intolerance.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1996; 40: 123-133
        • Bell IR
        • Schwartz GE
        • Baldwin CM
        • Hardin EE
        Neural sensitization and physiological markers in multiple chemical sensitivity.
        Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1996; 24: S39-S47
        • Bell IR
        • Schwartz GE
        • Bootzin RR
        • Wyatt JK
        Time-dependent sensitization of heart rate and blood pressure over multiple laboratory sessions in elderly individuals with and without chemical odor intolerance.
        Arch Environ Health. 1997; 52: 6-17
        • Bell IR
        • Schwartz GE
        • Baldwin CM
        • Hardin EE
        • Klimas N
        • Kline JP
        • et al.
        Individual differences in neural sensitization and the role of context in illness from low level environmental chemical exposures.
        Environ Health Perspect. 1997; 105: 457-466
      3. Bell IR, Walsh ME, Goss A, Gersmeyer J, Schwartz GE, Kanof P (in press a): Cognitive dysfunction and disability in geriatric veterans with self-reported sensitivity to environmental chemicals. J Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

      4. Bell IR, Baldwin CM, Schwartz GE (in press b): Illness from low levels of environmental chemicals: Relevance to chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. Am J Med Suppl.

      5. Bell IR, Baldwin CM, Schwartz GE, Hardin EE, Miller CS (in submission a): Interaction of chemical odor intolerance and depression in preclinical symptom patterns of young adults.

      6. Bell IR, Bootzin RR, Schwartz GE, Szarek MJ, DiCenso DR, Baldwin CM (in submission b): Differing patterns of cognitive dysfunction and heart rate reactivity in chemically intolerant individuals with and without lifestyle changes: Is prefrontal cortex involved?

      7. Bell IR, Baldwin CM, Russek LG, Schwartz GE, Hardin EE (in submission c): Early life stress, negative paternal relationships, and chemical odor intolerance in middle-aged women: Support for a neural sensitization model.

        • Benignus VA
        EEG as a cross-species indicator of neurotoxicity.
        Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol. 1984; 6: 473-483
        • Black DW
        • Rathe A
        • Goldstein RB
        Environmental illness.
        JAMA. 1990; 264: 3166-3170
        • Brenner RP
        • Ulrich RF
        • Spiker DG
        • et al.
        Computerized EEG spectral analysis in elderly normal, demented, and depressed subjects.
        Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1986; 64: 483-492
        • Buchwald D
        • Garrity D
        Comparison of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and multiple chemical sensitivities.
        Arch Intern Med. 1994; 154: 2049-2053
        • Burchfiel JL
        • Duffy FH
        Organophosphate neurotoxicity.
        Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol. 1982; 4: 767-778
        • Cain WS
        • Gent JF
        • Goodspeed RB
        • Leonard G
        Evaluation of olfactory dysfunction in the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center.
        Laryngoscope. 1988; 98: 83-88
        • Cheek JM
        • Buss AH
        Shyness and sociability.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 1981; 41: 330-339
        • Cornish JL
        • vanden Buuse M
        Stimulation of the rat mesolimbic dopaminergic system produces a pressor response which is mediated by dopamine D1 and D2 receptor activation and the release of vasopressin.
        Brain Res. 1995; 701: 28-38
        • Cullen MR
        The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities.
        in: Cullen MR Occupational Medicine State of the Art Reviews. Hanley and Belfus, Philadelphia1987: 655-662
        • Davidoff AL
        • Fogarty L
        Psychogenic origins of multiple chemical sensitivities syndrome.
        Arch Environ Health. 1994; 49: 316-325
        • Davidson RJ
        • Fox NA
        Frontal brain asymmetry predicts infants’ response to maternal separation.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1989; 98: 127-131
        • Davidson RJ
        • Schwartz GE
        • Saron C
        • Bennett J
        • Goleman DJ
        Frontal versus parietal EEG asymmetry during positive and negative affect.
        Psychophysiology. 1979; 16: 202-203
        • Davidson RJ
        • Schaffer CE
        • Saron C
        Effects of lateralized stimulus presentations on the self-report of emotion and EEG asymmetry in depressed and nondepressed subjects.
        Psychophysiology. 1985; 22: 353-364
        • Demitrack MA
        • Dale JK
        • Straus SE
        • et al.
        Evidence for impaired activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991; 73: 1224-1234
        • Deutch AY
        • Clark WA
        • Roth RH
        Prefrontal cortical dopamine depletion enhances the responsiveness of mesolimbic dopamine neurons to stress.
        Brain Res. 1990; 521: 311-315
        • Doty RL
        • Deems DA
        • Frye RE
        • Pelberg R
        • Shapiro A
        Olfactory sensitivity, nasal resistance, and autonomic function in patients with multiple chemical sensitivities.
        Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1988; 114: 1422-1427
        • Ehlers CL
        • Schuckit MA
        Evaluation of EEG alpha activity in sons of alcoholics.
        Neuropsychopharmacology. 1991; 4: 199-205
        • Ehlers C
        • Phillips E
        • Parry BL
        Electrophysiological findings during the menstrual cycle in women with and without late luteal phase dysphoric disorder.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1996; 39: 720-732
        • Ewing JA
        Detecting alcoholism.
        JAMA. 1984; 252: 1905-1907
        • Ferger B
        • Stahl D
        • Kuschinsky K
        Effects of cocaine on the EEG power spectrum of rats are significantly altered after its repeated administration.
        Naunyn Schmeidebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1996; 353: 545-551
        • Fiedler N
        • Maccia C
        • Kipen H
        Evaluation of chemically sensitive patients.
        J Occup Med. 1992; 34: 529-538
        • Fiedler N
        • Kipen H
        • DeLuca J
        • Kelly-McNeil K
        • Natelson B
        Neuropsychology and psychology of MCS.
        Toxicol Ind Health. 1994; 10: 545-554
        • Fiedler N
        • Kipen HM
        • DeLuca J
        • Kelly-McNeil K
        • Natelson B
        A controlled comparison of multiple chemical sensitivities and chronic fatigue syndrome.
        Psychosom Med. 1996; 58: 38-49
        • Gots RE
        Multiple chemical sensitivities—Public policy.
        Clin Toxicol. 1995; 33: 111-113
        • Hamamura T
        • Fibiger HC
        Enhanced stress-induced dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex of amphetamine-sensitized rats.
        Eur J Pharmacol. 1993; 237: 65-71
        • Hamilton M
        A rating scale for depression.
        J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1960; 23: 56-62
        • Harden PW
        • Pihl RO
        Cognitive function, cardiovascular reactivity, and behavior in boys at risk for alcoholism.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1995; 104: 94-103
        • Henriques JB
        • Davidson RJ
        EEG activation asymmetries discriminate between normothymic depressives and normal controls.
        Psychophysiology. 1988; 25: 453-454
        • Henriques JB
        • Davidson RJ
        Left frontal hypoactivation in depression.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1991; 100: 535-545
        • Heuser G
        • Mena I
        • Alamos F
        Neurospect findings in patients exposed to neurotoxic chemicals.
        Toxicol Ind Health. 1994; 10: 561-571
        • Kalivas PW
        • Alesdatter JE
        Involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor stimulation in the ventral tegmental area and amygdala in behavioral sensitization to cocaine.
        J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993; 267: 486-495
        • Kalivas PW
        • Barnes CD
        Limbic Motor Circuits and Neuropsychiatry. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL1993
        • Kalivas PW
        • Sorg BA
        • Hooks MS
        The pharmacology and neural circuitry of sensitization to psychostimulants.
        Behav Pharmacol. 1993; 4: 315-334
        • Kampov-Polevoy A
        • Garbutt JC
        • Janowsky D
        Evidence for preference for a high-concentration sucrose solution in alcoholic men.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1997; 154: 269-270
        • Kay LM
        Support for the kindling hypothesis in multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome (MCSS) induction.
        Soc Neurosci. 1996; 22: 1825
        • Knott VJ
        • Lapierre YD
        Computerized EEG correlates of depression and antidepressant treatment.
        Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1987; 11: 213-221
        • Lane RD
        • Merikangas KR
        • Schwartz GE
        • Huang SS
        • Prusoff BA
        Inverse relationship between defensiveness and lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorder.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147: 573-578
        • Locatelli M
        • Bellodi L
        • Perna G
        • Scarone S
        EEG power modifications in panic disorder during a temporolimbic activation task.
        J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1993; 5: 409-414
        • Matikainen E
        • Forsman-Gronholm L
        • Pfaffli P
        • Juntunen J
        Nervous system effects of occupational exposure to styrene.
        Environ Med. 1993; 61: 84-92
        • Meggs WJ
        • Dunn KA
        • Bloch RM
        • Goodman PE
        • Davidoff AL
        Prevalence and nature of allergy and chemical sensitivity in a general population.
        Arch Environ Health. 1996; 51: 275-282
        • Mesulam MM
        Principles of Behavioral Neurology. Davis, Philadelphia1985: 292-295
        • Miller CS
        Chemical sensitivity.
        Toxicol Ind Health. 1994; 10: 253-276
        • Miller CS
        • Mitzel HC
        Chemical sensitivity attributed to pesticide exposure versus remodeling.
        Arch Environ Health. 1995; 50: 119-129
        • Mitchell JB
        • Gratton A
        Partial dopamine depletion of the prefrontal cortex leads to enhanced mesolimbic dopamine release elicited by repeated exposure to naturally reinforcing stimuli.
        J Neurosci. 1992; 12: 3609-3618
        • Morrow LA
        • Steinhauer SR
        Alterations in heart rate and pupillary response in persons with organic solvent exposure.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1995; 37: 721-730
        • Morrow LA
        • Ryan CM
        • Hodgson MJ
        • Robin N
        Alterations in cognitive and psychological functioning after organic solvent exposure.
        J Occup Med. 1990; 32: 444-450
        • Morrow LA
        • Ryan CM
        • Hodgson MJ
        • Robin N
        Risk factors associated with persistence of neuropsychological deficits in persons with organic solvent exposure.
        J Nerv Ment Dis. 1991; 179: 540-545
        • Morrow LA
        • Robin N
        • Hodgson MJ
        • Kamis H
        Assessment of attention and memory efficiency in persons with solvent neurotoxicity.
        Neuropsychologia. 1992; 30: 911-922
        • Morrow LA
        • Steinhauer SR
        • Hodgson MJ
        Delay in P300 latency in patients with organic solvent exposure.
        Arch Neurol. 1992; 49: 315-320
        • Morrow LA
        • Kamis H
        • Hodgson MJ
        Psychiatric symptomatology in persons with organic solvent exposure.
        J Consult Clin Psychol. 1993; 61: 171-174
        • Muttray A
        • Lang J
        • Mayer-Popken O
        • Komietzko J
        Acute changes in the EEG of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents.
        Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 1995; 8: 131-137
        • Newlin DB
        • Thomson JB
        Chronic tolerance and sensitization to alcohol in sons of alcoholics.
        Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1991; 15: 399-405
        • Niedermeyer E
        • Lopes da Silva F
        Electroencephalography. 3rd ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore1993
        • Nystrom C
        • Matousek M
        • Hallstrom T
        Relationships between EEG and clinical characteristics in major depressive disorder.
        Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1986; 73: 390-394
        • Orbaek P
        • Rosen I
        • Svensson K
        Power spectrum analysis of EEG at diagnosis and follow up of patients with solvent induced chronic toxic encephalopathy.
        Br J Ind Med. 1988; 45: 476-482
        • Parker SL
        • Leznoff A
        • Sussman GL
        • Tarlo SM
        • Krondl M
        Characteristics of patients with food-related complaints.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1990; 86: 503-511
        • Pollock VE
        • Schneider LS
        Topographic EEG in recovered depressed elderly.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1989; 98: 268-273
        • Pollock VE
        • Schneider LS
        Topographic quantitative EEG in elderly subjects with major depression.
        Psychophysiology. 1990; 27: 438-444
        • Post RM
        Transduction of psychosocial stress into the neurobiology of recurrent affective disorder.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1992; 149: 999-1010
        • Prichep LS
        • John ER
        qEEG profiles of psychiatric disorders.
        Brain Topogr. 1992; 4: 249-257
        • Ray WJ
        • Cole HW
        EEG alpha activity reflects attentional demands, and beta activity reflects emotional and cognitive processes.
        Science. 1985; 228: 750-752
        • Reiss S
        • Peterson RA
        • Gursky DM
        • McNally RJ
        Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency, and the predictions of fearfulness.
        Behav Res Ther. 1986; 24: 1-8
        • Retzlaff PD
        • Morris GL
        Event-related potentials during the Continuous Visual Memory Test.
        J Clin Psychol. 1996; 52: 43-47
        • Reynolds WM
        Development of reliable and valid short forms of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale.
        J Clin Psychol. 1982; 38: 119-125
        • Reynolds CF
        • Kupfer DJ
        • Taska LS
        • et al.
        EEG sleep in elderly depressed, demented, and healthy subjects.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1985; 20: 431-442
        • Robinson TE
        • Berridge KC
        The neural basis of drug craving.
        Brain Res Rev. 1993; 18: 247-291
        • Rosenthal NE
        • Genhardt M
        • Sack DA
        • Skwerer RG
        • Wehr TA
        Seasonal affective disorder.
        in: Hudson JA Pope HG Psychobiology of Bulimia. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC1987
        • Ryan CM
        • Morrow LA
        • Hodgson M
        Cacosmia and neurobehavioral dysfunction associated with occupational exposure to mixtures of organic solvents.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1988; 145: 1442-1445
        • Schaffer CE
        • Davidson RJ
        • Saron C
        Frontal and parietal electroencephalogram asymmetry in depressed and nondepressed subjects.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1983; 18: 753-762
        • Schwartz GE
        • Bell IR
        • Dikman ZV
        • et al.
        EEG responses to low level chemicals in normals and cacosmics.
        Toxicol Ind Health. 1994; 10: 633-643
        • Sills TL
        • Vaccarino FJ
        Individual differences in sugar intake predict the locomotor response to acute and repeated amphetamine administration.
        Psychopharmacology. 1994; 116: 1-8
        • Simon GE
        • Katon WJ
        • Sparks PJ
        Allergic to life.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147: 901-906
        • Simon GE
        • Daniell W
        • Stockbridge H
        • Claypoole K
        • Rosenstock L
        Immunologic, psychological, and neuropsychological factors in multiple chemical sensitivity.
        Ann Intern Med. 1993; 19: 97-103
        • Sorg BA
        • Willis JR
        • Nowatka TC
        • Ulibarri C
        • See RE
        • Westberg HH
        A proposed animal neurosensitization model for multiple chemical sensitivity in studies with formalin.
        Toxicology. 1996; 111: 135-145
        • Sparks PJ
        • Daniell W
        • Black DW
        • et al.
        Multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome: A clinical perspective.
        J Occup Med. 1994; 36: 718-730
        • Staudenmayer H
        • Selner JC
        Neuropsychophysiology during relaxation in generalized, universal “allergic’ reactivity to the environment.
        J Psychosom Res. 1990; 34: 259-270
        • Stewart J
        • Badiani A
        Tolerance and sensitization to the behavioral effects of drugs.
        Behav Pharmacol. 1993; 4: 289-312
      8. Szarek MJ, Bell IR, Schwartz GE (in press): Validation of a brief screening measure of environmental chemical sensitivity: The chemical odor intolerance index. J Environ Psychol.

        • Teicher MH
        • Glod CA
        • Surrey J
        • Swett C
        Early childhood abuse and limbic system ratings in adult psychiatric outpatients.
        J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1993; 5: 301-306
        • Terr AI
        Multiple chemical sensitivities [editorial].
        Ann Intern Med. 1993; 119: 163-164
        • Valentino DA
        • Dufresne RL
        Attention tasks and EEG power spectra.
        Int J Psychophysiol. 1991; 11: 299-301
        • Visser SL
        • VanTilburg W
        • Hooijer C
        • Jonker C
        • DeRijke W
        Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in senile dementia (Alzheimer type) and in non-organic behavioral disorders in the elderly.
        Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1985; 60: 115-121
        • Von Euler G
        • Ogren SO
        • Li XM
        • Fuxe K
        • Gustafsson JA
        Persistent effects of subchronic toluene exposure on spatial learning and memory, dopamine-mediated locomotor activity and dopamine D2 agonist binding in the rat.
        Toxicology. 1993; 77: 223-232
        • Von Euler G
        • Ogren S
        • Eneroth P
        • Fuxe K
        • Gustafsson J
        Persistent effects of 80 ppm toluene on dopamine-regulated locomotor activity and prolactin secretion in the male rat.
        Neurotoxicology. 1994; 15: 621-624
      9. Wallace L, Nelson CJ, Kollander M, Leaderer B, Bascom R, Dunteman G (1991): Indoor air quality and work environment study. Multivariate statistical analysis of health, comfort, and odor perceptions as related to personal and workplace characteristics. US Environmental Protection Agency, vol 4, EPA Headquarters Buildings. Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory, June 1991 (21M-3004).

        • Weinstein ND
        Individual differences in reactions to noise.
        J Appl Psychol. 1978; 63: 458-466
        • Woods DL
        • Knight RT
        Electrophysiologic evidence of increased distractability after dorsolateral prefrontal lesions.
        Neurology. 1986; 36: 212-216
        • Yehuda R
        • Southwick SM
        • Krystal JH
        • Bremner D
        • Charney DS
        • Mason JW
        Enhanced suppression of cortisol following dexamethasone administration in posttraumatic stress disorder.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1993; 150: 83-86
        • Yoshida K
        • Morimotor A
        • Makisumi T
        • Murakami N
        Cardiovascular, thermal, and behavioral sensitization to metamphetamine in freely moving rats.
        J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993; 267: 1538-1543
        • Yoshikawa T
        • Watanabe A
        • Shibuya H
        • Toru M
        Involvement of the fimbria fornix in the initiation but not the expression of methamphetamine-induced sensitization.
        Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1993; 45: 691-695