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Conflicts of interest
The authors report no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest.
This study was supported by the EMTICS (FP7-HEALTH, Grant agreement ID: 278367), TSEUROTRAIN (FP7-PEOPLE, Grant agreement ID: 316978), NINDS (R01NS105746), NIMH (R01MH126213) grants to PP. AJW was funded by R01NS105746, the Tourette Association of America, and the Weill Institute for Neurosciences. AM was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG; FOR 2698). AS received support from the NIHR UCL/H Biomedical Research Centre. BH is an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma. CJ was funded by Lundbeck Fonden, grant number R100-2011-9332. CB was supported by funding from the Merit-prize fellowship of Semmelweis University, the Bolyai Janos research fellowship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences BO/00987/16/5, the UNKP-18-4 of the new National Excellence Program of the Ministry of Human Capacities and the Baron Munchausen Program of the Institute of Medical Chemistry, Molecular Biology and Pathobiochemistry, Semmelweis University. DCC was funded by the TSAA, by the Stichting VC-GGZ, and by TS-EUROTRAIN. DM has received research support from Ipsen Corporate and funding grants from Dystonia Medical Research Foundation Canada, Parkinson Canada, The Owerko Foundation, and the Michael P Smith Family. LKD was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health including R01NS102371 and R01NS105746. PM has received grants from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation [RTC2019-007150-1], the Instituto de Salud Carlos III-Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (ISCIII-FEDER), PI16/01575, PI19/01576], the Consejeria de Economia, Innovacion, Ciencia y Empleo de la Junta de Andalucia [CVI-02526, CTS-7685], the Consejeria de Salud y Bienestar Social de la Junta de Andalucia, PE-0210-2018]. PJ and CZ were funded by the National Science Center, Poland: UMO-2016/23/B/NZ2/03030. ZT funded by Lundbeck Fonden, grant number R100-2011-9332. TIC Genetics was supported by grants from NIH (MH115958, MH115960, MH115962, MH115961, MH115993, MH115963, MH115959) and the New Jersey Center for Tourette Syndrome and Associated Disorders (NJCTS).
Summary statistics data are available upon request to the corresponding authors.