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- Investigating direct and indirect genetic effects in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using parent-offspring trios.Biol Psychiatry. 2023; 93: 37-44
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Accepted: October 19, 2022
Received: October 19, 2022
© 2022 Published by Elsevier Inc on behalf of Society of Biological Psychiatry.
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- Investigating Direct and Indirect Genetic Effects in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Using Parent-Offspring TriosBiological PsychiatryVol. 93Issue 1
- PreviewAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, but little is known about the relative effects of transmitted (i.e., direct) and nontransmitted (i.e., indirect) common variant risks. Using parent-offspring trios, we tested whether polygenic liability for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and lower cognitive ability is overtransmitted to ADHD probands. We also tested for indirect or genetic nurture effects by examining whether nontransmitted ADHD polygenic liability is elevated.