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The Temporal Dynamics of Emotion Regulation in Major Depression and Healthy Controls

  • Noam Schneck
    Correspondence
    Corresponding Author: Noam Schneck, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10035, 646-774-7624,
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York

    Molecular Imaging and Neuropathology Division, The New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York
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  • Sarah Herzog
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York

    Molecular Imaging and Neuropathology Division, The New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York
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  • Jun Lu
    Affiliations
    Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago
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  • Ashley Yttredahl
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York

    Molecular Imaging and Neuropathology Division, The New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York
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  • R. Todd Ogden
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York

    Molecular Imaging and Neuropathology Division, The New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York

    Department of Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York
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  • Hanga Galfalvy
    Affiliations
    Department of Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York
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  • Ainsley Burke
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York

    Molecular Imaging and Neuropathology Division, The New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York
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  • Barbara Stanley
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York

    Molecular Imaging and Neuropathology Division, The New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York
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  • J. John Mann
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York

    Molecular Imaging and Neuropathology Division, The New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York
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  • Kevin N. Ochsner
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
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Published:September 06, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2022.09.002

      Abstract:

      Background

      Emotion regulation (ER) processes help support wellbeing, but ineffective ER is implicated in several psychiatric disorders. Engaging ER flexibly by going “online” and “offline” as needs and capacities shift, may be more effective than engaging ER rigidly across time. Here we sought to observe the neural temporal dynamics of an ER process, reappraisal, during regulation of responses to negative memories in healthy subjects (HCs, N=33) and subjects with major depressive disorder (MDDs, N=36). Methods: To track the temporal dynamics of reappraisal neural systems, we employed an fMRI neural decoding approach: In Task 1 subjects explicitly engaged reappraisal on instruction in response to aversive images, and we used this task to develop the decoder for detecting reappraisal. In Task 2 subjects experienced negative autobiographical memories from a distant (3rd person, ER condition) or immersed (1st person, control condition) perspective. Results: The neural decoder, trained to detect reappraisal in Task 1, predicted greater reappraisal occurring during the Task 2 distance vs. immerse trials and was engaged more intensely during memories that were rated as being more negative. Across time, decoder output manifested a temporal dynamic of early engagement followed by disengagement. These results were replicated in an independent subject dataset (N=59). Relative to HCs, MDDs had a comparable initial increase in decoder engagement at the beginning of the trial but an attenuated decrease at the end. Conclusion: MDDs evidenced a more rigid neural-dynamic of reappraisal compared to HCs. Rigid ER may indicate diminished ability to flexibly and effectively regulate emotion.

      Keywords

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