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Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for the Detection of Autoimmune Depression

  • Dominique Endres
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Dominique Endres, M.D.
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center- University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
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  • Thomas A. Pollak
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
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  • Karl Bechter
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy II, Ulm University, Bezirkskrankenhaus Günzburg, Günzburg, Germany
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 HP and LTvE contributed equally to this work as joint senior authors.
    Harald Prüss
    Footnotes
    1 HP and LTvE contributed equally to this work as joint senior authors.
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology and Experimental Neurology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany

    German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Berlin, Berlin, Germany
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 HP and LTvE contributed equally to this work as joint senior authors.
    Ludger Tebartz van Elst
    Footnotes
    1 HP and LTvE contributed equally to this work as joint senior authors.
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center- University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 HP and LTvE contributed equally to this work as joint senior authors.
      The discovery of anti–NMDA receptor encephalitis in 2007 provided enormous boosts to immunological research in neurology and psychiatry. Anti–NMDA receptor encephalitis is associated with severe neurological and a plethora of psychiatric symptoms, including psychotic and affective phenomena (
      • Prüss H.
      Autoantibodies in neurological disease.
      ,
      • Graus F.
      • Titulaer M.J.
      • Balu R.
      • Benseler S.
      • Bien C.G.
      • Cellucci T.
      • et al.
      A clinical approach to diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis.
      ). To date, several more well-characterized neuronal autoantibodies have been described (
      • Prüss H.
      Autoantibodies in neurological disease.
      ,
      • Graus F.
      • Titulaer M.J.
      • Balu R.
      • Benseler S.
      • Bien C.G.
      • Cellucci T.
      • et al.
      A clinical approach to diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis.
      ). According to current international consensus criteria, a diagnosis of possible autoimmune encephalitis (AE) should be considered in the presence of a subacute neuropsychiatric syndrome (with severe working memory deficits, an altered mental state, or psychiatric symptoms) in combination with at least one further organic sign, such as inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes with an increased white blood cell (WBC) count, suspicious magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes, epileptic seizures, or focal neurological signs (
      • Graus F.
      • Titulaer M.J.
      • Balu R.
      • Benseler S.
      • Bien C.G.
      • Cellucci T.
      • et al.
      A clinical approach to diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis.
      ).
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