Metabolism Connects Body, Brain, and Behavior

      Metabolism connects body, brain, and behavior. To most people 20 years ago (and probably for many still today), this sentence was nothing more than a cliché that barely resonated with those interested in brain research or mental illness. It may sound esoteric or holistic in its lay meaning, with nothing substantive. However, the title “Metabolic Links Between Body, Brain, and Behavior” was chosen for this special issue of Biological Psychiatry because of the long unanswered and fundamentally crucial clinical issues of psychiatry that may be most directly, forcefully, and successfully addressed by adjusting the state-of-the-art study of the mind with that of metabolism. The reviews in this issue scratch the surface of the relationship between energy metabolism, obesity, eating disorders, and organizational principles of complex behaviors and their disorders. They demonstrate that there is increasing awareness that cellular and systemic principles of energy metabolism are crucial determinants of brain function.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Zhang Y.
        • Proenca R.
        • Maffei M.
        • Barone M.
        • Leopold L.
        • Friedman J.M.
        Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue.
        Nature. 1994; 372: 425-432
        • Halaas J.L.
        • Gajiwala K.S.
        • Maffei M.
        • Cohen S.L.
        • Chait B.T.
        • Rabinowitz D.
        • et al.
        Weight-reducing effects of the plasma protein encoded by the obese gene.
        Science. 1995; 269: 543-546
        • Gao Q.
        • Horvath T.L.
        Neurobiology of feeding end energy expenditure.
        Ann Rev Neurosci. 2007; 30: 367-398
        • Farooqi I.S.
        Monogenic obesity syndromes provide insights into the hypothalamic regulation of appetite and associated behaviors.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2022; 91: 856-859
        • Dan O.
        • Wertheimer E.K.
        • Levy I.
        A neuroeconomics approach to obesity.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2022; 91: 860-868
        • Azevedo E.P.
        • Ivan V.J.
        • Friedman J.M.
        • Stern S.A.
        Higher-order inputs involved in appetite control.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2022; 91: 869-878
        • Copperi F.
        • Kim J.D.
        • Diano S.
        Melanocortin signaling connecting systemic metabolism with mood disorders.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2022; 91: 879-887
        • François M.
        • Fernández-Gayol O.
        • Zeltser L.M.
        A framework for developing translationally relevant animal models of stress-induced changes in eating behavior.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2022; 91: 888-897
        • Lippert R.N.
        • Brüning J.C.
        Maternal metabolic programming of the developing central nervous system: Unified pathways to metabolic and psychiatric disorders.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2022; 91: 898-906
        • Iyilikci O.
        • Zimmer M.R.
        • Dietrich M.O.
        Development of “hunger neurons” and the unanticipated relationship between energy metabolism and mother-infant interactions.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2022; 91: 907-914