Commentary| Volume 90, ISSUE 6, P354-355, September 15, 2021

Cognitive Endophenotypes: Powerful Tools for Modern Neuropsychiatric Genomics Research

      Profound cognitive deficits are a common feature of schizophrenia, and substantial impairments are also seen in bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder, albeit less frequently recognized. These impairments span the range of fluid intelligence functions, with the most severe tending to be in processing speed, working and episodic memory, and executive functioning, and can affect crystallized intelligence by reducing educational attainment. Cognitive deficits are highly correlated with impairments in the ability to perform everyday tasks, called functional capacity, affecting independence in residence, social capability, and employment, and thus directly contribute to the disability associated with these disorders.
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