Elevated State Anxiety Disturbs Model-Based Decision-Making Under Monetary Loss

      Previous studies showed that pathological anxiety is associated with altered risk-aversion and learning under uncertainty, but it is unrelated with a balance between model-based versus model-free learning in the reward condition. However, it remains unclear whether high anxiety is associated with similar deficits in goal-directed or model-based learning with aversive outcomes or punishment. As anxiety symptoms are triggered by negative events, it is critical to understand how anxiety under punishment alters decision-making. Here, we investigated how state anxiety affects model-based decision-making with monetary loss.
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