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Estrogen Withdrawal Increases Postpartum Anxiety via Oxytocin Plasticity in the Paraventricular Hypothalamus and Dorsal Raphe Nucleus

Published:November 23, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2020.11.016

      Abstract

      Background

      Estrogen increases dramatically during pregnancy but quickly drops below prepregnancy levels at birth and remains suppressed during the postpartum period. Clinical and rodent work suggests that this postpartum drop in estrogen results in an estrogen withdrawal state that is related to changes in affect, mood, and behavior. How estrogen withdrawal affects oxytocin (OT) neurocircuitry has not been examined.

      Methods

      We used a hormone-simulated pseudopregnancy followed by estrogen withdrawal in Syrian hamsters, a first for this species. Ovariectomized females were given daily injections to approximate hormone levels during gestation and then withdrawn from estrogen to simulate postpartum estrogen withdrawal. These hamsters were tested for behavioral assays of anxiety and anhedonia during estrogen withdrawal. Neuroplasticity in OT-producing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and its efferent targets was measured.

      Results

      Estrogen-withdrawn females had increased anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze and open field tests but did not differ from control females in sucrose preference. Furthermore, estrogen-withdrawn females had more OT-immunoreactive cells and OT messenger RNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and an increase in OT receptor density in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Finally, blocking OT receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus during estrogen withdrawal prevented the high-anxiety behavioral phenotype in estrogen-withdrawn females.

      Conclusions

      Estrogen withdrawal induces OT neuroplasticity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and dorsal raphe nucleus to increase anxiety-like behavior during the postpartum period. More broadly, these experiments suggest Syrian hamsters as a novel organism in which to model the effects of postpartum estrogen withdrawal on the brain and anxiety-like behavior.

      Keywords

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