Mood stabilizers represent the first treatment for acute episodes and prophylaxis of recurrences in patients with BD. Among mood stabilizers, Lithium has shown to be an effective treatment for acute mania, prophylaxis of recurrences, and prevention of suicide attempts. Most neuroimaging studies have looked at the effect of Lithium cross-sectionally and suggest that there is a neurotrophic (ameliorative) effect of Lithium on structural brain measures (increases in volumes and cortical thickness). Yet, the effect of long-term exposure to Lithium on the brain remains unclear.
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