Modeling Bipolar Disorder in Animal Models

      The development of animal models of bipolar disorder (BD) is a challenge by its complicated clinical course, which involves mania, depression, mixed states, and euthymia. Most animal models of BD focus on inducing mania- or depression-like behavior individually. The intracerebroventricular administration of ouabain is an example of a pharmacological model, which has been increasingly explored in the study of BD.
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