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Perpetual Hunger: The Neurobiological Consequences of Long-Term Opioid Use

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      Linked Article

      • Neurobiology of Opioid Addiction: Opponent Process, Hyperkatifeia, and Negative Reinforcement
        Biological PsychiatryVol. 87Issue 1
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          Opioids are powerful drugs that usurp and overpower the reward function of endogenous opioids and engage dramatic tolerance and withdrawal via molecular and neurocircuitry neuroadaptations within the same reward system. However, they also engage the brain systems for stress and pain (somatic and emotional) while producing hyperalgesia and hyperkatifeia, which drive pronounced drug-seeking behavior via processes of negative reinforcement. Hyperkatifeia (derived from the Greek “katifeia” for dejection or negative emotional state) is defined as an increase in intensity of the constellation of negative emotional or motivational signs and symptoms of withdrawal from drugs of abuse.
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