Advertisement

From Generation to Generation: Rethinking “Soul Wounds” and Historical Trauma

      Each year, members of the Lakota tribe and their allies gather in Bridger, South Dakota, and travel more than 300 kilometers on horseback in the dead of winter. The conditions are harsh: wind and snow burn their faces and make it difficult to breathe.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Elfrink T.
        (2019): Trump invokes one of the worst Native American massacres to mock Elizabeth Warren. Washington Post. January 14.
        (Available at:)
        • Office of Indian Affairs
        Extracts from verbatim stenographic report of council held by delegations of Sioux with Commissioner of Indian Affairs, at Washington, February 11, 1891.
        in: Sixtieth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to the Secretary of the Interior. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC1891: 179-181
        • Duran E.
        Healing the soul wound: Counseling with American Indians and other native peoples.
        Teachers College Press, New York2006
        • Rakoff V.
        A long term effect of the concentration camp experience.
        Viewpoints. 1966; 1: 17-22
        • Yehuda R.
        • Lehrner A.
        Intergenerational transmission of trauma effects: Putative role of epigenetic mechanisms.
        World Psychiatry. 2018; 17: 243-257
        • Dias B.G.
        • Ressler K.J.
        Parental olfactory experience influences behavior and neural structure in subsequent generations.
        Nat Neurosci. 2013; 17: 89-96
        • Brave Heart M.Y.
        The historical trauma response among natives and its relationship with substance abuse: A Lakota illustration.
        J Psychoactive Drugs. 2003; 35: 7-13
        • Walls M.L.
        • Whitbeck L.B.
        Advantages of stress process approaches for measuring historical trauma.
        Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2012; 38: 416-420
        • Neihardt J.G.
        Black Elk speaks: Being the life story of a holy man of the Oglala Sioux.
        University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE2000
        • Aoued H.S.
        • Sannigrahi S.
        • Doshi N.
        • Morrison F.G.
        • Linsenbaum H.
        • Hunter S.C.
        • et al.
        Reversing behavioral, neuroanatomical, and germline influences of intergenerational stress.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2019; 85: 248-256