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Discontinuation of Superolateral Medial Forebrain Bundle Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression Leads to Critical Relapse

Published:September 22, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2018.07.025
      Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is investigated as a possible therapy for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) (
      • Lozano A.M.
      • Mayberg H.S.
      • Giacobbe P.
      • Hamani C.
      • Craddock R.C.
      • Kennedy S.H.
      Subcallosal cingulate gyrus deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression.
      ,
      • Mayberg H.S.
      • Lozano A.M.
      • Voon V.
      • McNeely H.E.
      • Seminowicz D.
      • Hamani C.
      • et al.
      Deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression.
      ,
      • Bewernick B.H.
      • Hurlemann R.
      • Matusch A.
      • Kayser S.
      • Grubert C.
      • Hadrysiewicz B.
      • et al.
      Nucleus accumbens deep brain stimulation decreases ratings of depression and anxiety in treatment-resistant depression.
      ,
      • Kennedy S.H.
      • Giacobbe P.
      • Rizvi S.J.
      • Placenza F.M.
      • Nishikawa Y.
      • Mayberg H.S.
      • et al.
      Deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression: Follow-up after 3 to 6 years.
      ,
      • Schlaepfer T.E.
      • Bewernick B.H.
      • Kayser S.
      • Mädler B.
      • Coenen V.A.
      Rapid effects of deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant major depression.
      ,
      • Puigdemont D.
      • Pérez-Egea R.
      • Portella M.J.
      • Molet J.
      • de Diego-Adeliño J.
      • Gironell A.
      • et al.
      Deep brain stimulation of the subcallosal cingulate gyrus: Further evidence in treatment-resistant major depression.
      ,
      • Bewernick B.H.
      • Kayser S.
      • Sturm V.
      • Schlaepfer T.E.
      Long-term effects of nucleus accumbens deep brain stimulation in treatment-resistant depression: Evidence for sustained efficacy.
      ). DBS of the superolateral medial forebrain bundle (slMFB) is associated with rapid and sustained antidepressant effects (
      • Bewernick B.H.
      • Kayser S.
      • Gippert S.M.
      • Switala C.
      • Coenen V.A.
      • Schlaepfer T.E.
      Deep brain stimulation to the medial forebrain bundle for depression-long-term outcomes and a novel data analysis strategy.
      ). Little is known about the effect of DBS cessation after long-term treatment in psychiatric disorders. Previous clinical studies showed aggravation of depression after DBS discontinuation in TRD. Prediscontinuation level could be recaptured following different timelines after reinitiation of stimulation (
      • Mayberg H.S.
      • Lozano A.M.
      • Voon V.
      • McNeely H.E.
      • Seminowicz D.
      • Hamani C.
      • et al.
      Deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression.
      ,
      • Holtzheimer P.E.
      • Kelley M.E.
      • Gross R.E.
      • Filkowski M.M.
      • Garlow S.J.
      • Barrocas A.
      • et al.
      Subcallosal cingulate deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression.
      ,
      • Bergfeld I.O.
      • Mantione M.
      • Hoogendoorn M.L.
      • Ruhé H.G.
      • Notten P.
      • van Laarhoven J.
      • et al.
      Deep brain stimulation of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule for treatment-resistant depression: A randomized clinical trial.
      ).
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