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Cortical Paired Associative Stimulation Influences Response Inhibition: Cortico-cortical and Cortico-subcortical Networks

  • Sina Kohl
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
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  • Ricci Hannah
    Affiliations
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, University College London Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom
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  • Lorenzo Rocchi
    Affiliations
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, University College London Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom
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  • Camilla L. Nord
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
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  • John Rothwell
    Affiliations
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, University College London Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom
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  • Valerie Voon
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Valerie Voon, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom.
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    Behavioural and Clinical Neurosciences Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    Cambridgeshire and Peterborough National Health Service Foundation Trust, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom
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      Abstract

      Background

      The ability to stop a suboptimal response is integral to decision making and is commonly impaired across psychiatric disorders. Cortical paired associative stimulation (cPAS) is a form of transcranial magnetic stimulation in which paired pulses can induce plasticity at cortical synapses. Here we used cPAS protocols to target cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical networks by using different intervals between the paired pulses in an attempt to modify response inhibition.

      Methods

      A total of 25 healthy volunteers underwent four cPAS sessions in random order 1 week apart: right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) stimulation preceding right presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) stimulation by 10 or 4 ms and pre-SMA stimulation preceding IFC stimulation by 10 or 4 ms. Subjects were tested on the stop signal task along with the delay discounting task as control at baseline (randomized across sessions and cPAS protocol) and after each cPAS session.

      Results

      The stop signal reaction time showed a main effect of cPAS condition when controlling for age (F3,57 = 4.05, p = .01). Younger subjects had greater impairments in response inhibition when the pre-SMA pulse preceded the IFC pulse by 10 ms. In older individuals, response inhibition improved when the IFC pulse preceded the pre-SMA pulse by 4 ms. There were no effects on delay discounting.

      Conclusions

      cPAS modified response inhibition through age-dependent long-term potentiation and depression-like plasticity mechanisms via putative cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical networks. We show for the first time the capacity for cPAS to modify a cognitive process highly relevant to psychiatric disorders.

      Keywords

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