Advertisement

The Choice of Prior in Bayesian Modeling of the Information Sampling Task

  • Martin Christian Axelsen
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Martin Christan Axelsen, M.Sc., Technical University of Denmark, Richard Petersens Plads, Building 321, Room 106, Kongens Lyngby 2800, Denmark.
    Affiliations
    The Section for Cognitive Systems - DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark

    Lundbeck Foundation Center for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research, Mental Health Services Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark

    Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research, Mental Health Services Glostrup, Capital Region, Glostrup, Denmark
    Search for articles by this author
  • Jens Richardt Møllegaard Jepsen
    Affiliations
    Lundbeck Foundation Center for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research, Mental Health Services Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark

    Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research, Mental Health Services Glostrup, Capital Region, Glostrup, Denmark

    Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre, Mental Health Services, Capital Region, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Search for articles by this author
  • Nikolaj Bak
    Affiliations
    Lundbeck Foundation Center for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research, Mental Health Services Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark

    Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research, Mental Health Services Glostrup, Capital Region, Glostrup, Denmark
    Search for articles by this author
      The Information Sampling Task (IST) was introduced in Clark et al. (
      • Clark L.
      • Robbins T.W.
      • Ersche K.D.
      • Sahakian B.J.
      Reflection impulsivity in current and former substance users.
      ) as a measure of reflection impulsivity. Performance on the IST is evaluated through the average number of boxes opened for each trial of the test, whether the chosen color was in majority or not, and “the probability of the subject being correct at the point of decision [P(correct)]” (
      • Clark L.
      • Robbins T.W.
      • Ersche K.D.
      • Sahakian B.J.
      Reflection impulsivity in current and former substance users.
      ). P(correct) is proposed calculated as a per-trial probability:
      P ( c o r r e c t ) = k = A Z ( Z k ) 2 Z
      (1)


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Clark L.
        • Robbins T.W.
        • Ersche K.D.
        • Sahakian B.J.
        Reflection impulsivity in current and former substance users.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2006; 60: 515-522
        • Bennett D.
        • Oldham S.
        • Dawson A.
        • Parkes L.
        • Murawski C.
        • Yücel M.
        Systematic overestimation of reflection impulsivity in the Information Sampling Task.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2017; 82: e29-e30
        • Link W.A.
        • Barker R.J.
        Bayesian Inference: With Ecological Applications, 1st ed.
        Academic Press, Boston2009: 110-115
        • Bishop C.M.
        Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning.
        Springer Science+Business Media, New York2006

      Linked Article

      • Systematic Overestimation of Reflection Impulsivity in the Information Sampling Task
        Biological PsychiatryVol. 82Issue 4
        • Preview
          Impulsivity, a psychological construct comprising both motor and cognitive factors, is thought to underlie important interindividual differences in health and disease (1). In particular, reflection impulsivity, which refers to the tendency to gather and evaluate information before decision making (2), has been implicated in many psychiatric and neurological disorders (3–5). One of the standard tasks for measuring reflection impulsivity in healthy and clinical populations is the Information Sampling Task (IST), designed by Clark et al.
        • Full-Text
        • PDF
      • Reply to: The Choice of Prior in Bayesian Modeling of the Information Sampling Task
        Biological PsychiatryVol. 83Issue 12
        • Preview
          In a previous article (1), we detailed an error of statistical inference in P(correct), one of two outcome metrics for the Information Sampling Task (IST) (2), and showed how this error was likely to lead to biased estimation of reflection impulsivity by standard analysis code. We also provided an alternative formulation of this measure that more accurately reflects the statistical structure of the IST.
        • Full-Text
        • PDF