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Learning From One’s Mistakes: A Dual Role for the Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus in the Encoding and Expression of Punished Reward Seeking

      Abstract

      Background

      Psychiatric disorders such as addiction and mania are marked by persistent reward seeking despite highly negative or aversive outcomes, but the neural mechanisms underlying this aberrant decision making are unknown. The recently identified rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) encodes a wide variety of aversive stimuli and sends robust inhibitory projections to midbrain dopamine neurons, leading to the hypothesis that the RMTg provides a brake to reward signaling in response to aversive costs.

      Methods

      To test the role of the RMTg in punished reward seeking, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were tested in several cost-benefit decision tasks after excitotoxic lesions of the RMTg or temporally specific optogenetic inhibition of RMTg efferents in the ventral tegmental area.

      Results

      RMTg lesions drastically impaired the ability of foot shock to suppress operant responding for food. Optogenetic inhibition showed that this resistance to punishment was due in part to RMTg activity at the precise moment of shock delivery and was mediated by projections to the ventral tegmental area, which is consistent with an aversive “teaching signal” role for the RMTg during encoding of the aversive event. We observed a similar resistance to punishment when the RMTg was selectively inhibited immediately prior to the operant lever press, which is consistent with a second distinct role for the RMTg during action selection. These effects were not attributable to RMTg effects on learning rate, locomotion, shock sensitivity, or perseveration.

      Conclusions

      The RMTg has two strong and dissociable roles during both encoding and recall of aversive consequences of behavior.

      Keywords

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