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Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 as a Point of Convergence for Models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Natalie Matosin
    Affiliations
    Department of Translational Research in Psychiatry, Max-Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany
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  • Steven J. Siegel
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Steven J. Siegel, M.D., Ph.D., University of Southern California, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 2250 Alcazar Ave, Room 2202, Los Angeles, CA 90033;
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
    Search for articles by this author
      Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety-related condition that emerges either in prepuberty, which is more common in males, or in late adolescence, which is more common in females, and is distinguished by time-consuming and distressing patterns of repeated persistent thoughts, ideas, impulses, images, and behaviors. The prevalence of OCD in the United States is 2.3% and is slightly lower in pediatric populations (
      • Ruscio A.M.
      • Stein D.J.
      • Chiu W.T.
      • Kessler R.C.
      The epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.
      ). It has been estimated that up to 84% of youth diagnosed with OCD have comorbid disorders, such as major depressive disorder, alcohol dependence, and social phobia. Untreated OCD can lead to significant academic, social, and family dysfunction. The current pharmacological treatments for OCD include serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. These drugs can cause unfavorable side effects, including gastrointestinal upset, insomnia, and headaches (
      • Hammerness P.G.
      • Vivas F.M.
      • Geller D.A.
      Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pediatric psychopharmacology: a review of the evidence.
      ). In addition, these agents can require months to achieve their therapeutic effects, both delaying relief and reducing compliance.
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