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Heroin Addiction Impairs Human Cortical Plasticity

  • Author Footnotes
    1 YS, XC, and CS contributed equally to this work.
    Ying Shen
    Footnotes
    1 YS, XC, and CS contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing

    Rehabilitation Medicine Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 YS, XC, and CS contributed equally to this work.
    Xinyu Cao
    Footnotes
    1 YS, XC, and CS contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Da Lian Shan Institute of Addiction Rehabilitation, Nanjing
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 YS, XC, and CS contributed equally to this work.
    Chunlei Shan
    Footnotes
    1 YS, XC, and CS contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Shanghai University of Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China
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  • Wenjun Dai
    Affiliations
    Rehabilitation Medicine Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing
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  • Ti-Fei Yuan
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to: Ti-Fei Yuan, School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, 122 Ninghai Road, Gulou District, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China 210097.
    Affiliations
    School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 YS, XC, and CS contributed equally to this work.
      Drug-induced brain plasticity has been well characterized in animal studies (
      • Pignatelli M.
      • Bonci A.
      Role of dopamine neurons in reward and aversion: A synaptic plasticity perspective.
      ,
      • Kourrich S.
      • Calu D.J.
      • Bonci A.
      Intrinsic plasticity: An emerging player in addiction.
      ). Brief exposure to drugs of abuse leads to insertion of calcium-permeable alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors and calcium-impermeable N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors at the ventral tegmental area synapses (
      • Yuan T.
      • Mameli M.
      • O׳Connor E.C.
      • Dey P.N.
      • Verpelli C.
      • Sala C.
      • et al.
      Expression of cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity by GluN3A-containing NMDA receptors.
      ,
      • Ungless M.A.
      • Whistler J.L.
      • Malenka R.C.
      • Bonci A.
      Single cocaine exposure in vivo induces long-term potentiation in dopamine neurons.
      ); prolonged drug exposure alters synaptic composition at nucleus accumbens synapses and, in some cases, the cortical synapses (
      • Conrad K.L.
      • Tseng K.Y.
      • Uejima J.L.
      • Reimers J.M.
      • Heng L.J.
      • Shaham Y.
      • et al.
      Formation of accumbens GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors mediates incubation of cocaine craving.
      ,
      • Luscher C.
      • Malenka R.C.
      Drug-evoked synaptic plasticity in addiction: From molecular changes to circuit remodeling.
      ). However, few studies have characterized potential plasticity changes in cortical regions of human addicts.
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