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Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Psychiatric Illnesses: What Has Gone Wrong and What Should We Do Next?

      Invasive brain stimulation, particularly deep brain stimulation (DBS), has been heralded as a step forward for psychiatry. However, despite great promise, recent well-controlled studies for psychiatric illness have failed. We hypothesize that the root of these difficulties is our inability to carefully choose the patients to whom we offer DBS. Based on emerging results in neurobiology, we suggest a way forward through clinical studies that focus more closely on the underlying disturbances.
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