Before the wars in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF]) and Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF]), the co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and persistent postconcussive symptoms attributable to a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) was not considered to be a common phenomenon (
1), but the large number of veterans with both conditions has brought to light a gap in our understanding of biological links between them. Surveys of OEF and OIF veterans suggest that PTSD and mTBI co-occur because the event that resulted in the brain injury was experienced as a life-threatening trauma (
- McAllister T.W.
Psychopharmacological issues in the treatment of TBI and PTSD.
Clin Neuropsychol. 2009; 23: 1338-1367
- Hoge C.W.
- Castro C.A.
- Messer S.C.
- McGurk D.
- Cotting D.I.
- Koffman R.L.
Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems and barriers to care.
US Army Med Dep J. 2008; : 7-17
3). Another explanation is that similar biological factors give rise to persistent difficulties after mTBI and PTSD. Finally, it is possible that the same deficits or symptoms may be associated with different biological factors in mTBI versus PTSD. These alternative explanations could be parsed if there was greater understanding of biological correlates of the two conditions.
- Schneiderman A.I.
- Braver E.R.
- Kang H.K.
Understanding sequelae of injury mechanisms and mild traumatic brain injury incurred during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Persistent postconcussive symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder.
Am J Epidemiol. 2008; 167: 1446-1452
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- Psychopharmacological issues in the treatment of TBI and PTSD.Clin Neuropsychol. 2009; 23: 1338-1367
- Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems and barriers to care.US Army Med Dep J. 2008; : 7-17
- Understanding sequelae of injury mechanisms and mild traumatic brain injury incurred during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Persistent postconcussive symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder.Am J Epidemiol. 2008; 167: 1446-1452
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- Lower methylation of glucocorticoid receptor gene promoter 1F in Peripheral blood of veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.Biol Psychiatry. 2015; 77: 356-364
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Published online: February 10, 2015
Published by Elsevier Inc.