Electroencephalographic Biomarkers of Psychosis: Present and Future

  • Gregory A. Light
    Address correspondence to Gregory A. Light, Ph.D., Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0804
    Veterans Integrated Service Network-22 Mental Illness, Research, Education and Clinical Center , U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego

    Department of Psychiatry, Institute for Neural Computation, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California
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  • Scott Makeig
    Swartz Center for Computational Neuroscience, Institute for Neural Computation, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California
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      The extent to which schizophrenia (SZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (BD) represent distinct illnesses has been the focus of debate since Kraepelin and Blueler’s early descriptions of dementia praecox and manic depressive insanity. Their hope, expressed more than a century ago, was that the tools of neuroscience at the time (“clinical observation, the microscope and experimentation”) would lead to improved understanding and treatments of these devastating disorders. In the past century, spectacular advances have occurred at the intersections of neuroscience, psychopharmacology, and genomics. However, few, if any, laboratory tests to inform diagnoses, guide treatments, and monitor response to interventions have graduated from laboratories to clinics. Clinicians still must rely on behavioral observation and careful interview techniques to make inferences about patients’ inner experiences and deductions about the impacted neural systems. Although we have refined indirect clinical assessments for diagnosis and treatment, these methods have evolved relatively little since the late 19th century.
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