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Forecasting Psychosis by Event-Related Potentials—Systematic Review and Specific Meta-Analysis

      Abstract

      Background

      Prediction and prevention of psychosis have become major research topics. Clinical approaches warrant objective biological parameters to enhance validity in prediction of psychosis onset. In this regard, event-related potentials (ERPs) have been identified as promising tools for improving psychosis prediction.

      Methods

      Herein, the focus is on sensory gating, mismatch negativity (MMN) and P300, thereby discussing which parameters allow for a timely and valid detection of future converters to psychosis. In a first step, we systematically reviewed the studies that resulted from a search of the MEDLINE database. In a second step, we performed a meta-analysis of those investigations reporting transitions that statistically compared ERPs in converting versus nonconverting subjects.

      Results

      Sensory gating, MMN, and P300 have been demonstrated to be impaired in subjects clinically at risk of developing a psychotic disorder. In the meta-analysis, duration MMN achieved the highest effect size measures.

      Conclusions

      In summary, MMN studies have produced the most convincing results until now, including independent replication of the predictive validity. However, a synopsis of the literature revealed a relative paucity of ERP studies addressing the psychosis risk state. Considering the high clinical relevance of valid psychosis prediction, future research should question for the most informative paradigms and should allow for meta-analytic evaluation with regard to specificity and sensitivity of the most appropriate parameters.

      Keywords

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