Tourette syndrome (TS) is a heritable, neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by rapid, paroxysmal stereotyped motor or vocal behaviors. Individuals with TS often have poor psychosocial outcomes and comorbidity with major depression (
1). First-line treatment for many cases of TS includes cognitive-behavioral interventions and psychoeducation, while pharmacologic interventions include dopamine antagonists, alpha2-adrenergic agonists, psychostimulants, anticonvulsants, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (
- Gorman D.A.
- Thompson N.
- Plessen K.J.
- Robertson M.M.
- Leckman J.F.
- Peterson B.S.
Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: Controlled study.
Br J Psychiatry. 2010; 197: 36-44
- Roessner V.
- Rothenberger A.
- Rickards H.
- Hoekstra P.J.
European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011; 20: 153-154
3). Experimental interventions include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and deep brain stimulation.
- Scahill L.
- Woods D.W.
- Himle M.B.
- Peterson A.L.
- Wilhelm S.
- Piacentini J.C.
- et al.
Current controversies on the role of behavior therapy in Tourette syndrome.
Mov Disord. 2013; 28: 1179-1183
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- Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: Controlled study.Br J Psychiatry. 2010; 197: 36-44
- European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders.Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011; 20: 153-154
- Current controversies on the role of behavior therapy in Tourette syndrome.Mov Disord. 2013; 28: 1179-1183
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Published online: October 03, 2014
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