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Serum Interleukin-6 Is a Predictive Biomarker for Ketamine’s Antidepressant Effect in Treatment-Resistant Patients With Major Depression

      The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine is the most attractive antidepressant therapy for treatment-resistant patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (
      • Aan Het Rot M.
      • Zarate Jr, C.A.
      • Charney D.S.
      • Mathew S.J.
      Ketamine for depression: Where do we go from here?.
      ,
      • Krystal J.H.
      • Sanacora G.
      • Duman R.S.
      Rapid-acting glutamatergic antidepressants: The path to ketamine and beyond.
      ). A single subanesthetic dose (.5 mg/kg) of ketamine produces a rapid antidepressant effect in two thirds of these patients, which can last for over a week (
      • Zarate Jr, C.A.
      • Brutsche N.E.
      • Laje G.
      • Luckenbaugh D.A.
      • Venkata S.L.V.
      • Ramamoorthy A.
      • et al.
      Relationship of ketamine’s plasma metabolites with response, diagnosis, and side effects in major depression.
      ,
      • Murrough J.W.
      • Iosifescu D.V.
      • Chang L.C.
      • Al Jurdi R.K.
      • Green C.E.
      • Perez A.M.
      • et al.
      Antidepressant efficacy of ketamine in treatment-resistant major depression: A two-site randomized controlled trial.
      ). However, biomarkers able to differentiate between responding and nonresponding patients have yet to be identified (
      • Zarate Jr, C.A.
      • Brutsche N.E.
      • Laje G.
      • Luckenbaugh D.A.
      • Venkata S.L.V.
      • Ramamoorthy A.
      • et al.
      Relationship of ketamine’s plasma metabolites with response, diagnosis, and side effects in major depression.
      ,
      • Zarate Jr, C.A.
      • Mathews D.C.
      • Furey M.L.
      Human biomarkers of rapid antidepressant effects.
      ).
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