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Reward and Affective Regulation in Depression-Prone Smokers

      Background

      There is a disproportionately high smoking prevalence among individuals who are prone to depression. While depression has been conceptualized as a disorder of dysregulated positive affect and disrupted reward processing, little research has been conducted to determine the role of smoking in these processes among depression-prone smokers.

      Methods

      Depression-prone smokers (DP+; n = 34) and smokers not depression-prone (DP−; n = 49) underwent two laboratory sessions, one while smoking abstinent and one while smoking ad libitum, to assess the relative reinforcing value of smoking and reward sensitivity. Using experience sampling methods, participants completed self-report measures of subjective reward, positive affect, and negative affect across 3 days while smoking as usual and 3 days while smoking abstinent.

      Results

      DP+ were two times more likely to work for cigarette puffs versus money in a progressive ratio, choice task (odds ratio 2.05; 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 4.06, p = .039) compared with DP−. Reward sensitivity as measured by the signal detection task did not yield any significant findings. Mixed models regressions revealed a three-way interaction (depression group, smoking phase, and time) for subjective reward, negative affect, and positive affect. For all three of these outcomes, the slopes for DP− and DP+ differed significantly from each other (ps < .05) and the effect of smoking (versus abstinence) over time was greater for DP+ than DP− smokers (ps < .05).

      Conclusions

      These findings indicate that the effects of smoking on reward and positive affect regulation are specific to DP+ smokers and highlight novel targets for smoking cessation treatment in this population.

      Key Words

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