Opioids such as morphine, oxycodone, and fentanyl are widely used as effective analgesics for treating acute and chronic pain. Although appropriate use of opioid analgesics is an essential part of effective pain management, abuse and dependence on opioids pose a threat to health and have a devastating social and economic impact on families, communities, and nations. In a systematic analysis of the epidemiology of drug dependence with “global burden of disease,” Degenhardt et al. (
1) identified opioid dependsence as the largest contributor to the direct burden of disease among all illicit drugs.
- Degenhardt L.
- Whiteford H.A.
- Ferrari A.J.
- Baxter A.J.
- Charlson F.J.
- Hall W.D.
- et al.
Global burden of disease attributable to illicit drug use and dependence: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
Lancet. 2013; 382: 1564-1574
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- Global burden of disease attributable to illicit drug use and dependence: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.Lancet. 2013; 382: 1564-1574
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Accepted: April 22, 2014
Received: April 17, 2014
© 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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- Genome-Wide Association Study of Opioid Dependence: Multiple Associations Mapped to Calcium and Potassium PathwaysBiological PsychiatryVol. 76Issue 1