We thank Hoffmann and colleagues for thought-provoking correspondence and for sharing their data for additional analyses. However, in contrast to their assertion, our analyses were based on solar irradiance (SI) data from only one source (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) for the U.S. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence (PREV) (
1); therefore, it is unlikely that our results were affected by SI source; we used only one source within these analyses.
- Arns M.
- van der Heijden K.B.
- Arnold L.E.
- Kenemans J.L.
Geographic variation in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The sunny perspective.
Biol Psychiatry. 2013; 74: 585-590
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Published online: November 18, 2013
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- Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Solar Irradiance: A Cloudy PerspectiveBiological PsychiatryVol. 76Issue 8
- PreviewRecently, Arns et al. (1) showed an inverse correlation between rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis in the United States and horizontal solar irradiance. In the same article, the authors also indicated that prevalence estimates for ADHD correlated inversely with solar irradiance in a cross-national study including 10 countries. Possible mechanisms to explain those findings, such as the metabolism of vitamin D or problems related to circadian rhythm, have been proposed and are plausible (2,3).