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The Geographic Variation in the Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the United States Is Likely Due to Geographic Variations of Solar Ultraviolet B Doses and Race

      The article by Arns and colleagues reports a significant inverse correlation between geographic variations in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the annual solar index (SI) for the United States (
      • Arns M.
      • van der Heijden KB
      • Arnold L.E.
      • Kenemans J.L.
      Geographic variation in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The sunny perspective [published online ahead of print March 20].
      ). The authors suggested that the finding could be explained in terms of sunlight effects on circadian rhythm. They also discussed the alternative explanation that solar ultraviolet B (UVB) and vitamin D might reduce the risk of ADHD. This explanation was rejected in part because they did not find similar correlations between SI and either autism or major depressive disorder. However, as discussed here, dismissal of the UVB/vitamin D/ADHD hypothesis appears to be premature.
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