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Default Mode Network in Childhood Autism: Posteromedial Cortex Heterogeneity and Relationship with Social Deficits

  • Charles J. Lynch
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California
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  • Lucina Q. Uddin
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California
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  • Kaustubh Supekar
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California
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  • Amirah Khouzam
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California
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  • Jennifer Phillips
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California
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  • Vinod Menon
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Vinod Menon, Ph.D., 401 Quarry Road, Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, CA 94304-5719
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California

    Program in Neuroscience, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California

    Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California

    Stanford Institute for Neuro-Innovation and Translational Neurosciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California
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Published:February 04, 2013DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.12.013

      Background

      The default mode network (DMN), a brain system anchored in the posteromedial cortex, has been identified as underconnected in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, to date there have been no attempts to characterize this network and its involvement in mediating social deficits in children with ASD. Furthermore, the functionally heterogeneous profile of the posteromedial cortex raises questions regarding how altered connectivity manifests in specific functional modules within this brain region in children with ASD.

      Methods

      Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and an anatomically informed approach were used to investigate the functional connectivity of the DMN in 20 children with ASD and 19 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children. Multivariate regression analyses were used to test whether altered patterns of connectivity are predictive of social impairment severity.

      Results

      Compared with TD children, children with ASD demonstrated hyperconnectivity of the posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortices with predominately medial and anterolateral temporal cortex. In contrast, the precuneus in ASD children demonstrated hypoconnectivity with visual cortex, basal ganglia, and locally within the posteromedial cortex. Aberrant posterior cingulate cortex hyperconnectivity was linked with severity of social impairments in ASD, whereas precuneus hypoconnectivity was unrelated to social deficits. Consistent with previous work in healthy adults, a functionally heterogeneous profile of connectivity within the posteromedial cortex in both TD and ASD children was observed.

      Conclusions

      This work links hyperconnectivity of DMN-related circuits to the core social deficits in young children with ASD and highlights fundamental aspects of posteromedial cortex heterogeneity.

      Key Words

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