Advertisement

Reply to: Lithium and the Expanding Brain

      We thank Dr. Regenold for his interest and comment on our recent article (
      • Regenold W.T.
      Lithium and the expanding brain.
      ), in which we demonstrated that chronic lithium (Li) treatment increased both whole-brain volume and total cortical gray matter (GM) volume, relative to vehicle-treated controls, the latter effect being reversible upon drug withdrawal, confirmed postmortem (
      • Vernon A.C.
      • Natesan S.
      • Crum W.R.
      • Cooper J.D.
      • Modo M.
      • Williams S.C.
      • et al.
      Contrasting effects of haloperidol and lithium on rodent brain structure: a magnetic resonance imaging study with postmortem confirmation.
      ). Dr. Regenold suggests the osmotic effects of Li (
      • Phatak P.
      • Shaldivin A.
      • King L.S.
      • Shapiro P.
      • Regenold W.T.
      Lithium and inositol: effects on brain water homeostasis in the rat.
      ) may provide a plausible explanation for the apparently transitory increases in cortical GM volume.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Regenold W.T.
        Lithium and the expanding brain.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2012; 72: e17
        • Vernon A.C.
        • Natesan S.
        • Crum W.R.
        • Cooper J.D.
        • Modo M.
        • Williams S.C.
        • et al.
        Contrasting effects of haloperidol and lithium on rodent brain structure: a magnetic resonance imaging study with postmortem confirmation.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2012; 71: 855-863
        • Phatak P.
        • Shaldivin A.
        • King L.S.
        • Shapiro P.
        • Regenold W.T.
        Lithium and inositol: effects on brain water homeostasis in the rat.
        Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006; 186: 41-47
        • Vernon A.C.
        • Crum W.R.
        • Johansson S.M.
        • Modo M.
        Evolution of extra-nigral damage predicts behavioural deficits in a rat proteasome inhibitor model of Parkinson's disease.
        PLoS One. 2011; 6: e17269
        • Schwarz A.J.
        • Danckaert A.
        • Reese T.
        • Gozzi A.
        • Paxinos G.
        • Watson C.
        • et al.
        A stereotaxic MRI template set for the rat brain with tissue class distribution maps and co-registered anatomical atlas: application to pharmacological MRI.
        Neuroimage. 2006; 32: 538-550
        • Deoni S.C.
        • Williams S.C.
        • Jezzard P.
        • Suckling J.
        • Murphy D.G.
        • Jones D.K.
        Standardized structural magnetic resonance imaging in multicentre studies using quantitative T1 and T2 imaging at 1.5 T.
        Neuroimage. 2008; 40: 662-671
        • Komoroski R.A.
        • Pearce J.M.
        Localized 7Li MR spectroscopy and spin relaxation in rat brain in vivo.
        Magn Reson Med. 2004; 52: 164-168
        • Bearden C.E.
        • Thompson P.M.
        • Dalwani M.
        • Hayashi K.M.
        • Lee A.D.
        • Nicoletti M.
        • et al.
        Greater cortical gray matter density in lithium-treated patients with bipolar disorder.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2007; 62: 7-16
        • Lyoo I.K.
        • Dager S.R.
        • Kim J.E.
        • Yoon S.J.
        • Friedman S.D.
        • Dunner D.L.
        • et al.
        Lithium-induced gray matter volume increase as a neural correlate of treatment response in bipolar disorder: a longitudinal brain imaging study.
        Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010; 35: 1743-1750
        • Monkul E.S.
        • Matsuo K.
        • Nicoletti M.A.
        • Dierschke N.
        • Hatch J.P.
        • Dalwani M.
        • et al.
        Prefrontal gray matter increases in healthy individuals after lithium treatment: a voxel-based morphometry study.
        Neurosci Lett. 2007; 429: 7-11

      Linked Article

      • Lithium and the Expanding Brain
        Biological PsychiatryVol. 72Issue 7
        • Preview
          I read with great interest the article by Vernon et al. (1) entitled, “Contrasting Effects of Haloperidol and Lithium on Rodent Brain Structure: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study with Postmortem Confirmation,” describing their elegant imaging and postmortem study that showed lithium-related increases and haloperidol-related decreases in whole brain and cortical gray matter volume in rats. Their inclusion of postmortem histological confirmation of in vivo brain volume imaging data is a significant advancement over previous human studies limited to imaging (2–4).
        • Full-Text
        • PDF