There have been numerous reports concerning factors that might operate to increase vulnerability and resilience to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the mechanisms that might be involved in subserving the disorder, and the potential treatment strategies to ameliorate its symptoms. Although relevant data have come from studies in humans that had encountered traumatic events or chronic strain as well as from research in animals, the development of an animal model of PTSD appears to be particularly difficult. Specifically, PTSD is characterized by the reexperiencing of traumatic events, avoidance of trauma reminders, and anxiety and hyperarousal; in addition, depressive disorder is a frequent comorbid feature of PTSD.
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Accepted: July 12, 2011
Received in revised form: July 11, 2011
Received: July 4, 2011
© 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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- The Role of Norepinephrine in Differential Response to Stress in an Animal Model of Posttraumatic Stress DisorderBiological PsychiatryVol. 70Issue 5
- PreviewPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder precipitated by exposure to extreme traumatic stress. Yet, most individuals exposed to traumatic stress do not develop PTSD and may be considered psychologically resilient. The neural circuits involved in susceptibility or resiliency to PTSD remain unclear, but clinical evidence implicates changes in the noradrenergic system.