Commentary| Volume 70, ISSUE 5, P404-405, September 01, 2011

Sensitization in Relation to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

  • Hymie Anisman
    Address correspondence to Hymie Anisman, Department of Neuroscience, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada
    Department of Neuroscience, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Search for articles by this author
      There have been numerous reports concerning factors that might operate to increase vulnerability and resilience to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the mechanisms that might be involved in subserving the disorder, and the potential treatment strategies to ameliorate its symptoms. Although relevant data have come from studies in humans that had encountered traumatic events or chronic strain as well as from research in animals, the development of an animal model of PTSD appears to be particularly difficult. Specifically, PTSD is characterized by the reexperiencing of traumatic events, avoidance of trauma reminders, and anxiety and hyperarousal; in addition, depressive disorder is a frequent comorbid feature of PTSD.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Krystal J.H.
        • Neumeister A.
        Noradrenergic and serotonergic mechanisms in the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder and resilience.
        Brain Res. 2009; 1293: 13-23
      1. Cohen H, Kozlovsky N, Alona C, Matar MA, Joseph Z (in press): Animal model for PTSD: from clinical concept to translational research. Neuropharmacology.

        • Liberzon I.
        • Krstov M.
        • Young E.A.
        Stress-restress: effects on ACTH and fast feedback.
        Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1997; 22: 443-453
        • Anisman H.
        • Merali Z.
        • Hayley S.
        Neurotransmitter, peptide and cytokine processes in relation to depressive disorder: comorbidity between depression and neurodegenerative disorders.
        Prog Neurobiol. 2008; 85: 1-74
        • Olson V.G.
        • Rockett H.R.
        • Reh R.K.
        • Redila V.A.
        • Tran P.M.
        • Venkov H.A.
        • et al.
        The role of norepinephrine in differential response to stress in an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2011; 70: 441-448
        • Breslau N.
        • Peterson E.L.
        Assaultive violence and the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder following a subsequent trauma.
        Behav Res Ther. 2010; 48: 1063-1066
        • van Stegeren A.H.
        The role of the noradrenergic system in emotional memory.
        Acta Psychol (Amst). 2008; 127: 532-541
        • Bremner J.D.
        Effects of traumatic stress on brain structure and function: relevance to early responses to trauma.
        J Trauma Dissociation. 2005; 6: 51-68
        • Ravindran L.N.
        • Stein M.B.
        Pharmacotherapy of PTSD: premises, principles, and priorities.
        Brain Res. 2009; 1293: 24-39
        • Debiec J.
        • LeDoux J.E.
        Noradrenergic signaling in the amygdala contributes to the reconsolidation of fear memory: treatment implications for PTSD.
        Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006; 1071: 521-524

      Linked Article