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Blunted Cortisol Responses to Stress Signal Social and Behavioral Problems Among Maltreated/Bullied 12-Year-Old Children

  • Isabelle Ouellet-Morin
    Affiliations
    Medical Research Council Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
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  • Candice L. Odgers
    Affiliations
    School of Social Ecology, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California
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  • Andrea Danese
    Affiliations
    Medical Research Council Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
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  • Lucy Bowes
    Affiliations
    Medical Research Council Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
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  • Sania Shakoor
    Affiliations
    Medical Research Council Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
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  • Andrew S. Papadopoulos
    Affiliations
    Section of Neurobiology of Mood Disorders, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London and Affective Disorders Unit Laboratory, National Affective Disorders Unit, Bethlem Royal Hospital, London, United Kingdom
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  • Avshalom Caspi
    Affiliations
    Medical Research Council Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

    Departments of Psychology and Neuroscience, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
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  • Terrie E. Moffitt
    Affiliations
    Medical Research Council Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

    Departments of Psychology and Neuroscience, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
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  • Louise Arseneault
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Louise Arseneault, Ph.D., Medical Research Council Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Box Number P080, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom
    Affiliations
    Medical Research Council Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
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      Background

      Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that early-life stress such as physical maltreatment has long-lasting effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and is associated with blunted HPA axis reactivity in adulthood. Few studies have investigated whether blunted HPA axis reactivity observed in children exposed to early-life stress signals social, emotional, and behavioral problems.

      Methods

      Participants were 190 12-year-old children (50.5% males) recruited from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994 to 1995 cohort of families with twins. Cortisol responses to psychosocial stress were measured in maltreated/bullied (n = 64) and comparison children (n = 126). We ascertained maltreatment and bullying victimization using mothers' reports and assessed children's social, emotional, and behavioral problems at ages 5 and 12 using mothers' and teachers' reports.

      Results

      Piecewise multilevel growth curve analyses indicated that maltreated/bullied and comparison children showed distinct cortisol responses to stress. Specifically, maltreated/bullied children had lower cortisol responses than comparison children who exhibited a significant increase. Lower cortisol responses were, in turn, associated with more social and behavioral problems among maltreated/bullied children.

      Conclusions

      These findings provide support for the influence of childhood harm on blunted HPA axis reactivity and its potential impact on children's functioning. Our findings emphasize the need to integrate stress biomarkers in guiding prevention efforts for young victims.

      Key Words

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