Advertisement

Default-Mode and Task-Positive Network Activity in Major Depressive Disorder: Implications for Adaptive and Maladaptive Rumination

      Background

      Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated reliably with ruminative responding; this kind of responding is composed of both maladaptive and adaptive components. Levels of activity in the default-mode network (DMN) relative to the task-positive network (TPN), as well as activity in structures that influence DMN and TPN functioning, may represent important neural substrates of maladaptive and adaptive rumination in MDD.

      Methods

      We used a unique metric to estimate DMN dominance over TPN from blood oxygenation level-dependent data collected during eyes-closed rest in 17 currently depressed and 17 never-disordered adults. We calculated correlations between this metric of DMN dominance over TPN and the depressive, brooding, and reflective subscales of the Ruminative Responses Scale, correcting for associations between these measures both with one another and with severity of depression. Finally, we estimated and compared across groups right fronto-insular cortex (RFIC) response during initiations of ascent in DMN and in TPN activity.

      Results

      In the MDD participants, increasing levels of DMN dominance were associated with higher levels of maladaptive, depressive rumination and lower levels of adaptive, reflective rumination. Moreover, our RFIC state-change analysis showed increased RFIC activation in the MDD participants at the onset of increases in TPN activity; conversely, healthy control participants exhibited increased RFIC response at the onset of increases in DMN activity.

      Conclusions

      These findings support a formulation in which the DMN undergirds representation of negative, self-referential information in depression, and the RFIC, when prompted by increased levels of DMN activity, initiates an adaptive engagement of the TPN.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Morrow J.
        • Nolen-Hoeksema S.
        Effects of responses to depression on the remediation of depressive affect.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 1990; 58: 519-527
        • Nolen-Hoeksema S.
        Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1991; 100: 569-582
        • Kuehner C.
        • Weber I.
        Responses to depression in unipolar depressed patients: An investigation of Nolen-Hoeksema's response styles theory.
        Psychol Med. 1999; 29: 1323-1333
        • Nolan S.A.
        • Roberts J.E.
        • Gotlib I.H.
        Neuroticism and ruminative response style as predictors of change in depressive symptomatology.
        Cogn Ther Res. 1998; 22: 445-455
        • Trapnell P.D.
        • Campbell J.D.
        Private self-consciousness and the five-factor model of personality: Distinguishing rumination from reflection.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 1999; 76: 284-304
        • Watkins E.
        • Teasdale J.D.
        Adaptive and maladaptive self-focus in depression.
        J Affect Disord. 2004; 82: 1-8
        • Nolen-Hoeksema S.
        • Morrow J.
        • Fredrickson B.L.
        Response styles and the duration of episodes of depressed mood.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1993; 102: 20-28
        • Treynor W.
        • Gonzalez R.
        • Nolen-Hoeksema S.
        Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis.
        Cognit Ther Res. 2003; 27: 247-259
        • Joormann J.
        • Dkane M.
        • Gotlib I.H.
        Adaptive and maladaptive components of rumination?.
        Behav Ther. 2006; 37: 269-280
        • Corbetta M.
        • Kincade J.M.
        • Shulman G.L.
        Neural systems for visual orienting and their relationships to spatial working memory.
        J Cogn Neurosci. 2002; 14: 508-523
        • Fox M.D.
        • Snyder A.Z.
        • Vincent J.L.
        • Corbetta M.
        • Van Essen D.C.
        • Raichle M.E.
        The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005; 102: 9673-9678
        • Raichle M.E.
        • MacLeod A.M.
        • Snyder A.Z.
        • Powers W.J.
        • Gusnard D.A.
        • Shulman G.L.
        A default mode of brain function.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001; 98: 676-682
        • Spreng R.N.
        • Mar R.A.
        • Kim A.S.N.
        The common neural basis of autobiographical memory, prospection, navigation, theory of mind, and the default mode: A quantitative meta-analysis.
        J Cogn Neurosci. 2009; 21: 489-510
        • Sheline Y.I.
        • Barch D.M.
        • Price J.L.
        • Rundle M.M.
        • Vaishnavi S.N.
        • Snyder A.Z.
        • et al.
        The default mode network and self-referential processes in depression.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009; 106: 1942-1947
        • Drevets W.C.
        • Price J.L.
        • Furey M.L.
        Brain structural and functional abnormalities in mood disorders: Implications for neurocircuitry models of depression.
        Brain Struct Funct. 2008; 213: 93-118
        • Grimm S.
        • Boesiger P.
        • Beck J.
        • Schuepbach D.
        • Bermpohl F.
        • Walter M.
        • et al.
        Altered negative BOLD responses in the default-mode network during emotion processing in depressed subjects.
        Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009; 34: 932-943
        • Siegle G.J.
        • Thompson W.
        • Carter C.S.
        • Steinhauer S.R.
        • Thase M.E.
        Increased amygdala and decreased dorsolateral prefrontal BOLD responses in unipolar depression: Related and independent features.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2007; 61: 198-209
        • Mayberg H.S.
        • Liotti M.
        • Brannan S.K.
        • McGinnis S.
        • Mahurin R.K.
        • Jerabek P.A.
        • et al.
        Reciprocal limbic-cortical function and negative mood: Converging PET findings in depression and normal sadness.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1999; 156: 675-682
        • Sridharan D.
        • Levitin D.J.
        • Menon V.
        A critical role for the right fronto-insular cortex in switching between central-executive and default-mode networks.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008; 105: 12569-12574
        • Craig A.D.
        How do you feel−now?.
        Nat Rev Neurosci. 2009; 10: 59-70
        • Paulus M.P.
        • Stein M.B.
        An insular view of anxiety.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2006; 60: 383-387
        • Mayberg H.S.
        • Lozano A.M.
        • Voon V.
        • McNeely H.E.
        • Seminowicz D.
        • Hamani C.
        • et al.
        Deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression.
        Neuron. 2005; 45: 651-660
        • Fu C.H.Y.
        • Williams S.C.R.
        • Cleare A.J.
        • Brammer M.J.
        • Walsh N.D.
        • Kim J.
        • et al.
        Attenuation of the neural response to sad faces in major depression by antidepressant treatment: A prospective, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004; 61: 877-889
        • First M.B.
        • Spitzer R.L.
        • Gibbon M.
        • Williams J.B.W.
        The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality-Disorders (SCID-I).
        J Pers Disord. 1995; 9: 83-91
        • Beck A.T.
        • Rush A.J.
        • Shaw B.F.
        • Emery G.
        Cognitive Therapy of Depression.
        Guilford Publications, New York1979
        • Hamilton M.
        A rating scale for depression.
        J Neurol Neurosurg, Psychiatry. 1960; 23: 56-62
        • Hamilton J.P.
        • Chen G.
        • Thomason M.E.
        • Johnson R.F.
        • Gotlib I.H.
        Investigating neural primacy in Major Depressive Disorder: Multivariate granger causality analysis of resting-state fMRI time-series data.
        Mol Psychiatry. 2010; ([published online ahead of print May 18])
        • Siegle G.J.
        • Steinhauer S.R.
        • Thase M.E.
        • Stenger V.A.
        • Carter C.S.
        Can't shake that feeling: Event-related fMRI assessment of sustained amygdala activity in response to emotional information in depressed individuals.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2002; 51: 693-707
        • Furman D.J.
        • Hamilton J.P.
        • Joormann J.
        • Gotlib I.H.
        Altered timing of amygdala activation during sad mood elaboration as a function of 5-HTTLPR.
        Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2010; ([published online ahead of print April 1])
        • Holm S.
        A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure.
        Scand J Stat. 1979; 6: 65-70
        • Christoff K.
        • Gordon A.M.
        • Smallwood J.
        • Smith R.
        • Schooler J.W.
        Experience sampling during fMRI reveals default network and executive system contributions to mind wandering.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009; 106: 8719-8724
        • Christoff K.
        • Gordon A.
        • Smith R.
        The role of spontaneous thought in human cognition.
        in: Vartanian O. Mandel D.R. Neuroscience of Decision Making. Psychology Press, London2011