Archival Report| Volume 67, ISSUE 12, P1120-1127, June 15, 2010

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Sidman Instrumental Avoidance Initially Depends on Lateral and Basal Amygdala and Is Constrained by Central Amygdala-Mediated Pavlovian Processes

  • Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz
    WM Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York
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  • Joseph E. LeDoux
    WM Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York

    Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, New York

    Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, New York

    Emotional Brain Institute, New York University, New York, New York
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  • Christopher K. Cain
    Address correspondence to Christopher K. Cain, Ph.D., Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, Room 809, New York, NY 10003
    WM Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology, Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York
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      The lateral (LA) and central (CE), but not basal (B), amygdala nuclei are necessary for reactive Pavlovian fear responses such as freezing. The amygdala also plays a key role in the acquisition and expression of active instrumental defensive behaviors, but little is known about the specific roles of amygdala nuclei. Using a Sidman active avoidance (AA) task, we examined the necessity of LA, B, and CE for learning and performance. Pavlovian freezing was simultaneously assessed to examine the contributions of amygdala nuclei to the transition from reactive to active defensive responding.


      Rats received electrolytic lesions of LA, CE, or B before AA training, or following overtraining. Rats that expressed low levels of AA performance during training received bilateral electrolytic lesions to CE to eliminate competing freezing reactions and rescue AA. AA performance and freezing were assessed.


      Damage to LA and B, but not CE, impaired the acquisition of AA. Performance of AA became amygdala-independent following overtraining. CE lesions abolished Pavlovian freezing and rescued instrumental AA performance in rats that expressed low levels of avoidance responses and high levels of freezing during training.


      Although the acquisition of Pavlovian fear depends on LA and CE, but not B, acquisition of instrumental AA is dependent on LA and B, but not CE. CE-dependent Pavlovian processes that control freezing can constrain avoidance behavior. Performance of well-trained AA becomes independent of all three amygdala nuclei. Thus, it appears that different output pathways of LA mediate reactive and active conditioned defensive responding.

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      • Amygdala Activity, Fear, and Anxiety: Modulation by Stress
        Biological PsychiatryVol. 67Issue 12
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          Over the past approximately 30 years, the neuroscience community has made terrific strides in its understanding of the small region in the temporal lobe named for its peculiar almond shape, the amygdala. This area now provides among the best examples of how neural circuits control specific behaviors. In terms of our depth of understanding of its afferent and efferent connections, the role of incoming signals in modulating emotion-related behavior, and the functional and anatomic results of its projection patterns, the detailed understanding of the amygdala is unsurpassed.
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