Advertisement

Atypical Face Versus Object Processing and Hemispheric Asymmetries in 10-Month-Old Infants at Risk for Autism

Published:September 22, 2009DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.07.031

      Background

      Previous studies have documented atypicalities in face/object processing in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). To investigate whether such atypicalities may reflect a genetically mediated risk factor present early in development, we measured face/object processing in 10-month-old high-risk infants who carry some of the genes associated with ASD because they have an older sibling diagnosed with the disorder.

      Methods

      We employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to measure cortical responses to pictures of faces and objects, the objects being toys. Latencies and amplitudes of four ERP components (P100, N290, P400, and Nc) were compared between 20 high-risk infants and 20 low-risk control subjects (infants with no family history of ASD).

      Results

      Responses to faces versus objects differed between high- and low-risk infants for the latencies of the N290 and P400. Differences were driven by faster responses to faces than objects in low-risk, but not high-risk, infants (P400) and, conversely, faster responses to objects than faces in high-risk, but not low-risk, infants (N290). Object responses were also faster in high-risk than low-risk infants (both N290 and P400). Left versus right hemisphere responses also differed between high- and low-risk infants for the amplitudes of the P100, N290, and P400; collapsed across faces/objects, low-risk, but not high-risk, infants exhibited hemisphere asymmetries.

      Conclusions

      Genetic risk for ASD is associated with atypical face versus object processing and an atypical lack of hemispheric asymmetry early in life. These atypicalities might contribute to development of the disorder.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • American Psychiatric Association
        Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
        4th ed. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC2004
        • Lord C.
        • Leventhal B.L.
        • Cook Jr, E.H.
        Quantifying the phenotype in autism spectrum disorders.
        Am J Med Genet. 2001; 105: 36-38
        • Rivera S.M.
        • Koldewyn K.
        Unraveling the mystery of motion perception impairments in autism: Some further considerations.
        Curr Psychol Cogn. 2005; 23: 189-197
        • Dakin S.
        • Frith U.
        Vagaries of visual perception in autism.
        Neuron. 2005; 48: 497-507
        • Happe F.
        • Frith U.
        The weak coherence account: Detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2006; 36: 5-25
        • Kellerman G.R.
        • Fan J.
        • Gorman J.M.
        Auditory abnormalities in autism: Toward functional distinctions among findings.
        CNS Spectr. 2005; 10: 748-756
        • Mottron L.
        • Dawson M.
        • Soulieres I.
        • Hubert B.
        • Burack J.
        Enhanced perceptual functioning in autism: An update, and eight principles of autistic perception.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2006; 36: 27-43
        • Hauck M.
        • Fein D.
        • Maltby N.
        • Waterhouse L.
        • Feinstein C.
        Memory for faces in children with autism.
        Child Neuropsychol. 1998; 43: 187-198
        • Klin A.
        • Sparrow S.S.
        • de Bildt A.
        • Cicchetti D.V.
        • Cohen D.J.
        • Volkmar F.R.
        A normed study of face recognition in autism and related disorders.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 1999; 29: 499-508
        • Joseph R.M.
        • Tanaka J.
        Holistic and part-based face recognition in children with autism.
        J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2003; 44: 529-542
        • Behrmann M.
        • Thomas C.
        • Humphreys K.
        Seeing it differently: Visual processing in autism.
        Trends Cogn Sci. 2006; 10: 258-264
        • Jemel B.
        • Mottron L.
        • Dawson M.
        Impaired face processing in autism: Fact or artifact?.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2006; 36: 91-106
        • Humphreys K.
        • Hasson U.
        • Avidan G.
        • Minshew N.
        • Behrmann M.
        Cortical patterns of category-selecive activation for faces, places and objects in adults with autism.
        Autism Res. 2008; 1: 52-63
        • Pierce K.
        • Muller R.A.
        • Ambrose J.
        • Allen G.
        • Courchesne E.
        Face processing occurs outside the fusiform “face area” in autism: Evidence from functional MRI.
        Brain. 2001; 124: 2059-2073
        • Schultz R.T.
        • Gauthier I.
        • Klin A.
        • Fulbright R.K.
        • Anderson A.W.
        • Volkmar F.
        • et al.
        Abnormal ventral temporal cortical activity during face discrimination among individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000; 57: 331-340
        • Aylward E.
        • Bernier R.
        • Field K.
        • Grimme A.
        • Dawson G.
        Normal activation of fusiform gyrus in adolescents and adults with autism during viewing of familiar, but not unfamiliar, faces.
        in: Presented at the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism (CPEA)/Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment (STAART) Annual Meeting, 17–20 May, Bethesda Maryland2004
        • Pierce K.
        • Haist F.
        • Sedaghat F.
        • Courchesne E.
        The brain response to personally familiar faces in autism: Findings of fusiform activity and beyond.
        Brain. 2004; 127: 2703-2716
        • Bailey A.J.
        • Braeutigam S.
        • Jousmaki V.
        • Swithenby S.J.
        Abnormal activation of face processing systems at early and intermediate latency in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: A magnetoencephalographic study.
        Eur J Neurosci. 2005; 21: 2575-2585
        • Hadjikhani N.
        • Joseph R.M.
        • Snyder J.
        • Chabris C.F.
        • Clark J.
        • Steele S.
        • et al.
        Activation of the fusiform gyrus when individuals with autism spectrum disorder view faces.
        Neuroimage. 2004; 22: 1141-1150
        • Maestro S.
        • Muratori F.
        • Cavallaro M.C.
        • Pei F.
        • Stern D.
        • Golse B.
        • et al.
        Attentional skills during the first 6 months of age in autism spectrum disorder.
        J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2002; 41: 1239-1245
        • Swettenham J.
        • Baron-Cohen S.
        • Charman T.
        • Cox A.
        • Baird G.
        • Drew A.
        • et al.
        The frequency and distribution of spontaneous attention shifts between social and nonsocial stimuli in autistic, typically developing, and nonautistic developmentally delayed infants.
        J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1998; 39: 747-753
        • Zwaigenbaum L.
        • Bryson S.
        • Rogers T.
        • Roberts W.
        • Brian J.
        • Szatmari P.
        Behavioral manifestations of autism in the first year of life.
        Int J Dev Neurosci. 2005; 23: 143-152
        • Ozonoff S.
        • Macari S.
        • Young G.S.
        • Goldring S.
        • Thompson M.
        • Rogers S.J.
        Atypical object exploration at 12 months of age is associated with autism in a prospective sample.
        Autism. 2008; 12: 457-472
        • Baranek G.T.
        Autism during infancy: A retrospective video analysis of sensory-motor and social behaviors at 9–12 months of age.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 1999; 29: 213-224
        • Osterling J.A.
        • Dawson G.
        • Munson J.A.
        Early recognition of 1-year-old infants with autism spectrum disorder versus mental retardation.
        Dev Psychopathol. 2002; 14: 239-251
        • Bentin S.
        • Allison T.
        • Puce A.
        • Perez E.
        • McCarthy G.
        Electrophysiological studies of face perception in humans.
        J Cognit Neurosci. 1996; 8: 551-565
        • Rebai M.
        • Poiroux S.
        • Bernard C.
        • Lalonde R.
        Event-related potentials for category-specific information during passive viewing of faces and objects.
        Int J Neurosci. 2001; 106: 209-226
        • Heisz J.J.
        • Watter S.
        • Shedden J.M.
        Automatic face identity encoding at the N170.
        Vision Res. 2006; 46: 4604-4614
        • McPartland J.
        • Dawson G.
        • Webb S.J.
        • Panagiotides H.
        • Carver L.J.
        Event-related brain potentials reveal anomalies in temporal processing of faces in autism spectrum disorder.
        J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2004; 45: 1235-1245
        • Halit H.
        • Csibra G.
        • Volein A.
        • Johnson M.H.
        Face-sensitive cortical processing in early infancy.
        J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2004; 45: 1228-1234
        • Halit H.
        • de Haan M.
        • Johnson M.H.
        Cortical specialisation for face processing: Face-sensitive event-related potential components in 3- and 12-month-old infants.
        Neuroimage. 2003; 19: 1180-1193
        • de Haan M.
        • Nelson C.A.
        Brain activity differentiates face and object processing in 6-month-old infants.
        Dev Psychol. 1999; 35: 1113-1121
        • de Haan M.
        • Johnson M.H.
        • Halit H.
        Development of face-sensitive event-related potentials during infancy: A review.
        Int J Psychophysiol. 2003; 51: 45-58
        • Webb S.J.
        • Dawson G.
        • Bernier R.
        • Panagiotides H.
        ERP evidence of atypical face processing in young children with autism.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2006; 36: 881-890
        • Carver L.J.
        • Dawson G.
        Development and neural bases of face recognition in autism.
        Mol Psychiatry. 2002; 7: S18-S20
        • Schultz R.T.
        Developmental deficits in social perception in autism: The role of the amygdala and fusiform face area.
        Int J Dev Neurosci. 2005; 23: 125-141
        • Dawson G.
        • Webb S.J.
        • Wijsman E.
        • Schellenberg G.
        • Estes A.
        • Munson J.
        • et al.
        Neurocognitive and electrophysiological evidence of altered face processing in parents of children with autism: Implications for a model of abnormal development of social brain circuitry in autism.
        Dev Psychopathol. 2005; 17: 679-697
        • Adolphs R.
        • Spezio M.L.
        • Parlier M.
        • Piven J.
        Distinct face-processing strategies in parents of autistic children.
        Curr Biol. 2008; 18: 1090-1093
        • Pellicano E.
        Autism: Face-processing clues to inheritance.
        Curr Biol. 2008; 18: R748-R750
        • Dalton K.M.
        • Nacewicz B.M.
        • Alexander A.L.
        • Davidson R.J.
        Gaze-fixation, brain activation, and amygdala volume in unaffected siblings of individuals with autism.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2007; 61: 512-520
        • Dorris L.
        • Espie C.A.E.
        • Knott F.
        • Salt J.
        Mind-reading difficulties in the siblings of people with Asperger's syndrome: Evidence for a genetic influence in the abnormal development of a specific cogniitve domain.
        J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2004; 45: 412-418
        • Bolte S.
        • Poustka F.
        The recognition of facial affect in autistic and schizophrenic subjects and their first-degree relatives.
        Psychol Med. 2003; 33: 907-915
        • Gottesman I.
        • Gould T.D.
        The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: Etymology and strategic intentions.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2003; 160: 636-645
        • Gottesman I.
        • Shields T.
        Schizophrenia and Genetics: A Twin Study Vantage Point.
        Acadmic Publishing, New York1972
        • Szatmari P.
        • Maziade M.
        • Zwaigenbaum L.
        • Merette C.
        • Roy M.A.
        • Joober R.
        • et al.
        Informative phenotypes for genetic studies of psychiatric disorders.
        Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007; 144: 581-588
        • Bailey A.
        • Palferman S.
        • Heavey L.
        • Le Couteur A.
        Autism: The phenotype in relatives.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 1998; 28: 369-392
        • Bailey A.
        • Le Couteur A.
        • Gottesman I.
        • Bolton P.
        • Simonoff E.
        • Yuzda E.
        • et al.
        Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: Evidence from a British twin study.
        Psychol Med. 1995; 25: 63-77
        • Pickles A.
        • Starr E.
        • Kazak S.
        • Bolton P.
        • Papanikolaou K.
        • Bailey A.
        • et al.
        Variable expression of the autism broader phenotype: Findings from extended pedigrees.
        J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2000; 41: 491-502
        • Piven J.
        • Palmer P.
        • Landa R.
        • Santangelo S.
        • Jacobi D.
        • Childress D.
        Personality and language characteristics in parents from multiple-incidence autism families.
        Am J Med Genet. 1997; 74: 398-411
        • Curtis W.J.
        • Cicchetti D.
        Moving research on resilience into the 21st century: Theoretical and methodological considerations in examining the biological contributors to resilience.
        Dev Psychopathol. 2003; 15: 773-810
        • Kim-Cohen J.
        Resilience and developmental psychopathology.
        Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2007; 16: 271-283
        • Volkmar F.
        • Chawarska K.
        • Klin A.
        Autism in infancy and early childhood.
        Annu Rev Psychol. 2005; 56: 315-336
        • Zwaigenbaum L.
        • Thurm A.
        • Stone W.
        • Baranek G.
        • Bryson S.
        • Iverson J.
        • et al.
        Studying the emergence of autism spectrum disorders in high risk infants: Methodological and practical issues.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2007; 37: 466-480
        • Elsabbagh M.
        • Johnson M.H.
        Infancy and autism: Progress, prospects, and challenges.
        Prog Brain Res. 2007; 164: 355-383
        • Ritvo E.R.
        • Jorde L.B.
        • Mason-Brothers A.
        • Freeman B.J.
        • Pingree C.
        • Jones M.B.
        • et al.
        The UCLA-University of Utah epidemiologic survey of autism: Recurrence risk estimates and genetic counseling.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1989; 146: 1032-1036
        • Sumi S.
        • Taniai H.
        • Miyachi T.
        • Tanemura M.
        Sibling risk of pervasive developmental disorder estimated by means of an epidemiologic survey in Nagoya, Japan.
        J Hum Genet. 2006; 51: 518-522
        • Chakrabarti S.
        • Fombonne E.
        Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children.
        JAMA. 2001; 285: 3093-3099
        • Yeargin-Allsopp M.
        • Rice C.
        • Karapurkar T.
        • Doernberg N.
        • Boyle C.
        • Murphy C.
        Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area.
        JAMA. 2003; 289: 49-55
        • McCleery J.P.
        • Allman E.
        • Carver L.J.
        • Dobkins K.R.
        Abnormal magnocellular pathway visual processing in infants at risk for autism.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2007; 62: 1007-1014
        • Elsabbagh M.
        • Volein A.
        • Csibra G.
        • Holmboe K.
        • Garwood H.
        • Tucker L.
        • et al.
        Neural correlates of eye gaze processing in the infant broader autism phenotype.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2009; 65: 31-38
        • Elsabbagh M.
        • Volein A.
        • Holmboe K.
        • Tucker L.
        • Csibra G.
        • Baron-Cohen S.
        • et al.
        Visual orienting in the early broader autism phenotype: Disengagement and facilitation.
        J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009; 50: 637-642
        • Iverson J.M.
        • Wozniak R.H.
        Variation in vocal-motor development in infant siblings of children with autism.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2007; 37: 158-170
        • Loh A.
        • Soman T.
        • Brian J.
        • Bryson S.E.
        • Roberts W.
        • Szatmari P.
        • et al.
        Stereotyped motor behaviors associated with autism in high-risk infants: A pilot videotape analysis of a sibling sample.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2007; 37: 25-36
        • Carver L.
        • Cornew L.
        • Dobkins K.R.
        • McCleery J.M.
        Social referencing in children at risk for autism: Behavior and brain activity.
        in: Presented at the International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR), 3–5 May, Seattle, Washington2007
        • Presmanes A.G.
        • Walden T.A.
        • Stone W.L.
        • Yoder P.J.
        Effects of different attentional cues on responding to joint attention in younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2007; 37: 133-144
        • Cassel T.D.
        • Messinger D.S.
        • Ibanez L.V.
        • Haltigan J.D.
        • Acosta S.I.
        • Buchman A.C.
        Early social and emotional communication in the infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders: An examination of the broad phenotype.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2007; 37: 122-132
        • Goldberg W.A.
        • Jarvis K.L.
        • Osann K.
        • Laulhere T.M.
        • Straub C.
        • Thomas E.
        • et al.
        Brief report: Early social communication behaviors in the younger siblings of children with autism.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2005; 35: 657-664
        • Toth K.
        • Dawson G.
        • Meltzoff A.N.
        • Greenson J.
        • Fein D.
        Early social, imitation, play, and language abilities of young non-autistic siblings of children with autism.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2007; 37: 145-157
        • Yirmiya N.
        • Gamliel I.
        • Pilowsky T.
        • Feldman R.
        • Baron-Cohen S.
        • Sigman M.
        The development of siblings of children with autism at 4 and 14 months: Social engagement, communication, and cognition.
        J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2006; 47: 511-523
        • Merin N.
        • Young G.S.
        • Ozonoff S.
        • Rogers S.J.
        Visual fixation patterns during reciprocal social interaction distinguish a subgroup of 6-month-old infants at-risk for autism from comparison infants.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2007; 37: 108-121
        • Gamliel I.
        • Yirmiya N.
        • Sigman M.
        The development of young siblings of children with autism from 4 to 54 months.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2007; 37: 171-183
        • Yirmiya N.
        • Gamliel I.
        • Shaked M.
        • Sigman M.
        Cognitive and verbal abilities of 24- to 36-month-old siblings of children with autism.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2007; 37: 218-229
        • Dobkins K.R.
        • Akshoomoff N.
        • Carver L.J.
        • Dorhmann E.
        • McCleery J.P.
        Early cognitive, communicative and social development in infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
        in: Presented at the International Meeting for Autism Research, 15–17 May, London, England2008
        • Landa R.
        • Garrett-Mayer E.
        Development in infants with autism spectrum disorders: A prospective study.
        J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2006; 47: 629-638
        • Sullivan M.
        • Finelli J.
        • Marvin A.
        • Garrett-Mayer E.
        • Bauman M.
        • Landa R.
        Response to joint attention in toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorder: A prospective study.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2007; 37: 37-48
        • Mitchell S.
        • Brian J.
        • Zwaigenbaum L.
        • Roberts W.
        • Szatmari P.
        • Smith I.
        • et al.
        Early language and communication development of infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.
        J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2006; 27: S69-S78
        • Bryson S.E.
        • Zwaigenbaum L.
        • Brian J.
        • Roberts W.
        • Szatmari P.
        • Rombough V.
        • et al.
        A prospective case series of high-risk infants who developed autism.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2007; 37: 12-24
        • Lord C.
        • Risi S.
        • Lambrecht L.
        • Cook Jr, E.H.
        • Leventhal B.L.
        • DiLavore P.C.
        • et al.
        The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2000; 30: 205-223
        • Lord C.
        • Rutter M.
        • Le Couteur A.
        Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 1994; 24: 659-685
      1. Dobkins KR, Bosworth RG, McCleery JP (in press): Contributions of biological maturation and visual experience to the development of visual contrast sensitivity. J Vis.

        • Dawson G.
        • Carver L.
        • Meltzoff A.N.
        • Panagiotides H.
        • McPartland J.
        • Webb S.J.
        Neural correlates of face and object recognition in young children with autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, and typical development.
        Child Dev. 2002; 73: 700-717
        • Balboa R.M.
        • Grzywacz N.M.
        Power spectra and distribution of contrasts of natural images from different habitats.
        Vision Res. 2003; 43: 2527-2537
        • Bosworth R.G.
        • Bartlett M.S.
        • Dobkins K.R.
        Image statistics of American sign language: Comparison with faces and natural scenes.
        J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2006; 23: 2085-2096
        • Carver L.J.
        • Dawson G.
        • Panagiotides H.
        • Meltzoff A.N.
        • McPartland J.
        • Gray J.
        • et al.
        Age-related differences in neural correlates of face recognition during the toddler and preschool years.
        Dev Psychobiol. 2003; 42: 148-159
        • de Haan M.
        • Nelson C.A.
        Recognition of the mother's face by six-month-old infants: A neurobehavioral study.
        Child Dev. 1997; 68: 187-210
        • Courchesne E.
        Chronology of postnatal human brain development: Event-related potential, positron emission tomography, myelinogenesis, and synaptogenesis studies.
        in: Rohrbaugh J. Parasuraman R. Event-Related Brain Potentials: Basic Issues and Applications. Oxford University Press, London1990: 210-241
        • Nelson C.A.
        Neural correlates of recognition memory in the first postnatal year.
        in: Dawson G. Fisher K. Human Behavior and the Developing Brain. Guilford Publications, New York1994: 269-313
        • Handy T.C.
        Basic principles of ERP quantification.
        in: Handy T.C. Event Related Potentials: A Methods Handbook. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA2005
        • Grice S.J.
        • Halit H.
        • Farroni T.
        • Baron-Cohen S.
        • Bolton P.
        • Johnson M.H.
        Neural correlates of eye-gaze detection in young children with autism.
        Cortex. 2005; 41: 342-353
        • Prior M.R.
        • Bradshaw J.L.
        Hemisphere functioning in autistic children.
        Cortex. 1979; 15: 73-81
        • Gage N.M.
        • Juranek J.
        • Filipek P.A.
        • Osann K.
        • Isenberg A.L.
        • Flodman P.
        • et al.
        Rightward hemispheric asymmetries in auditory language cortex in children with autistic disorder: An MRI investigation.
        J Neurodev Disord. 2009; ([published online ahead of print April 4])
        • Chiron C.
        • Leboyer M.
        • Leon F.
        • Jambaque I.
        • Nuttin C.
        • Syrota A.
        SPECT of the brain in childhood autism: Evidence for a lack of normal hemispheric asymmetry.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 1995; 37: 849-860
        • Escalante-Mead P.R.
        • Minshew N.J.
        • Sweeney J.A.
        Abnormal brain lateralization in high-functioning autism.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2003; 33: 539-543
        • Mills D.L.
        • Coffey-Corina S.A.
        • Neville H.J.
        Language acquisition and cerebral specialization in 20-month-old infants.
        J Cogn Neurosci. 1993; 5: 317-334
        • Dawson G.
        • Webb S.J.
        • McPartland J.
        Understanding the nature of face processing impairment in autism: Insights from behavioral and electrophysiological studies.
        Dev Neuropsychol. 2005; 27: 403-424
        • Scherf K.S.
        • Behrmann M.
        • Minshew N.
        • Luna B.
        Atypical development of face and greeble recognition in autism.
        J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2008; 49: 838-847
        • Lord C.
        • Risi S.
        • DiLavore P.S.
        • Shulman C.
        • Thurm A.
        • Pickles A.
        Autism from 2 to 9 years of age.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006; 63: 694-701
        • Charman T.
        • Taylor E.
        • Drew A.
        • Cockerill H.
        • Brown J.A.
        • Baird G.
        Outcome at 7 years of children diagnosed with autism at age 2: Predictive validity of assessments conducted at 2 and 3 years of age and pattern of symptom change over time.
        J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005; 46: 500-513
        • Pierce K.
        • Redcay E.
        Fusiform function in children with an autism spectrum disorder is a matter of “who.”.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2008; 64: 552-560