Advertisement

The Effects of Psychotherapy on Neural Responses to Rewards in Major Depression

  • Gabriel S. Dichter
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Gabriel S. Dichter, Ph.D., Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, CB# 3366, 101 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3366
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

    Neurodevelopmental Disorders Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

    Duke-UNC Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina

    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina
    Search for articles by this author
  • Jennifer N. Felder
    Affiliations
    Neurodevelopmental Disorders Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
    Search for articles by this author
  • Christopher Petty
    Affiliations
    Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina
    Search for articles by this author
  • Joshua Bizzell
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

    Neurodevelopmental Disorders Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

    Duke-UNC Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina
    Search for articles by this author
  • Monique Ernst
    Affiliations
    Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health/National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland
    Search for articles by this author
  • Moria J. Smoski
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina
    Search for articles by this author
Published:September 03, 2009DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.06.021

      Background

      Unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by anomalous neurobiological responses to pleasant stimuli, a pattern that may be linked to symptoms of anhedonia. However, the potential for psychotherapy to normalize neurobiological responses to pleasant stimuli has not been evaluated.

      Methods

      Twelve adults with and 15 adults without MDD participated in two identical functional magnetic resonance imaging scans that used a Wheel of Fortune task. Between scans, MDD outpatients received Behavioral Activation Therapy for Depression, a psychotherapy modality designed to increase engagement with rewarding stimuli and reduce avoidance behaviors.

      Results

      Seventy-five percent of adults with MDD were treatment responders, achieving post-treatment Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score of six or below. Relative to changes in brain function in the matched nondepressed group, psychotherapy resulted in functional changes in structures that mediate responses to rewards, including the paracingulate gyrus during reward selection, the right caudate nucleus (i.e., the dorsal striatum), during reward anticipation, and the paracingulate and orbital frontal gyri during reward feedback. There was no effect of diagnostic status or psychotherapy on in-scanner task-related behavioral responses.

      Conclusions

      Behavioral Activation Therapy for Depression, a psychotherapy modality designed to increase engagement with rewarding stimuli and reduce avoidance behaviors, results in improved functioning of unique reward structures during different temporal phases of responses to pleasurable stimuli, including the dorsal striatum during reward anticipation.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Mayberg H.S.
        Limbic-cortical dysregulation: A proposed model of depression.
        J Neuropsychiatr Clin Neurosci. 1997; 9: 471-481
        • Ressler K.J.
        • Mayberg H.S.
        Targeting abnormal neural circuits in mood and anxiety disorders: From the laboratory to the clinic.
        Nat Neurosci. 2007; 10: 1116-1124
        • Mayberg H.S.
        Modulating dysfunctional limbic-cortical circuits in depression: Towards development of brain-based algorithms for diagnosis and optimised treatment.
        Br Med Bull. 2003; 65: 193-207
        • Seminowicz D.A.
        • Mayberg H.S.
        • McIntosh A.R.
        • Goldapple K.
        • Kennedy S.
        • Segal Z.
        • Rafi-Tari S.
        Limbic-frontal circuitry in major depression: A path modeling metanalysis.
        Neuroimage. 2004; 22: 409-418
        • Greicius M.D.
        • Flores B.H.
        • Menon V.
        • Glover G.H.
        • Solvason H.B.
        • Kenna H.
        • et al.
        Resting-state functional connectivity in major depression: Abnormally increased contributions from subgenual cingulate cortex and thalamus.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2007; 62: 429-437
        • Drevets W.C.
        Prefrontal cortical-amygdalar metabolism in major depression.
        Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999; 877: 614-637
        • Pizzagalli D.A.
        • Oakes T.R.
        • Fox A.S.
        • Chung M.K.
        • Larson C.L.
        • Abercrombie H.C.
        • et al.
        Functional but not structural subgenual prefrontal cortex abnormalities in melancholia.
        Mol Psychiatry. 2004; 9: 393-405
        • Fu C.H.
        • Williams S.C.
        • Cleare A.J.
        • Scott J.
        • Mitterschiffthaler M.T.
        • Walsh N.D.
        • et al.
        Neural responses to sad facial expressions in major depression following cognitive behavioral therapy.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2008; 64: 505-512
        • Hamilton J.P.
        • Gotlib I.H.
        Neural substrates of increased memory sensitivity for negative stimuli in major depression.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2008; 63: 1155-1162
        • Lee B.T.
        • Seok J.H.
        • Lee B.C.
        • Cho S.W.
        • Yoon B.J.
        • Lee K.U.
        • et al.
        Neural correlates of affective processing in response to sad and angry facial stimuli in patients with major depressive disorder.
        Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008; 32: 778-785
        • Dannlowski U.
        • Ohrmann P.
        • Bauer J.
        • Kugel H.
        • Arolt V.
        • Heindel W.
        • et al.
        Amygdala reactivity to masked negative faces is associated with automatic judgmental bias in major depression: A 3 T fMRI study.
        J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2007; 32: 423-429
        • Mitterschiffthaler M.T.
        • Kumari V.
        • Malhi G.S.
        • Brown R.G.
        • Giampietro V.P.
        • Brammer M.J.
        • et al.
        Neural response to pleasant stimuli in anhedonia: An fMRI study.
        Neuroreport. 2003; 14: 177-182
        • Kumar P.
        • Waiter G.
        • Ahearn T.
        • Milders M.
        • Reid I.
        • Steele J.D.
        Abnormal temporal difference reward-learning signals in major depression.
        Brain. 2008; 131: 2084-2093
        • Steele J.D.
        • Kumar P.
        • Ebmeier K.P.
        Blunted response to feedback information in depressive illness.
        Brain. 2007; 130: 2367-2374
        • Kumari V.
        • Mitterschiffthaler M.T.
        • Teasdale J.D.
        • Malhi G.S.
        • Brown R.G.
        • Giampietro V.
        • et al.
        Neural abnormalities during cognitive generation of affect in treatment-resistant depression.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2003; 54: 777-791
        • Ochsner K.N.
        • Ray R.D.
        • Cooper J.C.
        • Robertson E.R.
        • Chopra S.
        • Gabrieli J.D.
        • et al.
        For better or for worse: Neural systems supporting the cognitive down- and up-regulation of negative emotion.
        Neuroimage. 2004; 23: 483-499
        • Liotti M.
        • Mayberg H.S.
        • McGinnis S.
        • Brannan S.L.
        • Jerabek P.
        Unmasking disease-specific cerebral blood flow abnormalities: Mood challenge in patients with remitted unipolar depression.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2002; 159: 1830-1840
        • Keedwell P.A.
        • Andrew C.
        • Williams S.C.R.
        • Brammer M.J.
        • Zelaya F.
        • Phillips M.L.
        The neural correlates of depression.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2003; 53 ([abstract]): 171S
        • Ernst M.
        • Nelson E.E.
        • McClure E.B.
        • Monk C.S.
        • Munson S.
        • Eshel N.
        • et al.
        Choice selection and reward anticipation: An fMRI study.
        Neuropsychologia. 2004; 42: 1585-1597
        • Knutson B.
        • Fong G.W.
        • Adams C.M.
        • Varner J.L.
        • Hommer D.
        Dissociation of reward anticipation and outcome with event-related fMRI.
        Neuroreport. 2001; 12: 3683-3687
        • Knutson B.
        • Adams C.M.
        • Fong G.W.
        • Hommer D.
        Anticipation of increasing monetary reward selectively recruits nucleus accumbens.
        J Neurosci. 2001; 21: RC159
        • Forbes E.E.
        • Christopher M.J.
        • Siegle G.J.
        • Ladouceur C.D.
        • Ryan N.D.
        • Carter C.S.
        • et al.
        Reward-related decision-making in pediatric major depressive disorder: An fMRI study.
        J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2006; 47: 1031-1040
        • Forbes E.E.
        • Hariri A.R.
        • Martin S.L.
        • Silk J.S.
        • Moyles D.L.
        • Fisher P.M.
        • et al.
        Altered striatal activation predicting real-world positive affect in adolescent major depressive disorder.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2009; 166: 64-73
        • Knutson B.
        • Bhanji J.P.
        • Cooney R.E.
        • Atlas L.Y.
        • Gotlib I.H.
        Neural responses to monetary incentives in major depression.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2008; 63: 686-692
        • Smoski M.J.
        • Felder J.
        • Bizzell J.
        • Green S.
        • Ernst M.
        • Lynch T.R.
        • Dichter G.S.
        FMRI of alterations in reward selection, anticipation, and feedback in major depressive disorder.
        J Affect Disord. 2009; ([published online ahead of print March 2])
        • Mayberg H.S.
        • Brannan S.K.
        • Tekell J.L.
        • Silva J.A.
        • Mahurin R.K.
        • McGinnis S.
        • Jerabek P.A.
        Regional metabolic effects of fluoxetine in major depression: Serial changes and relationship to clinical response.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2000; 48: 830-843
        • Drevets W.C.
        • Bogers W.
        • Raichle M.E.
        Functional anatomical correlates of antidepressant drug treatment assessed using PET measures of regional glucose metabolism.
        Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2002; 12: 527-544
        • Milak M.S.
        • Parsey R.V.
        • Keilp J.
        • Oquendo M.A.
        • Malone K.M.
        • Mann J.J.
        Neuroanatomic correlates of psychopathologic components of major depressive disorder.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005; 62: 397-408
        • Saxena S.
        • Brody A.L.
        • Ho M.L.
        • Zohrabi N.
        • Maidment K.M.
        • Baxter Jr, L.R.
        Differential brain metabolic predictors of response to paroxetine in obsessive-compulsive disorder versus major depression.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2003; 160: 522-532
        • Fu C.H.
        • Williams S.C.
        • Cleare A.J.
        • Brammer M.J.
        • Walsh N.D.
        • Kim J.
        • et al.
        Attenuation of the neural response to sad faces in major depression by antidepressant treatment: A prospective, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004; 61: 877-889
        • Davidson R.J.
        • Irwin W.
        • Anderle M.J.
        • Kalin N.H.
        The neural substrates of affective processing in depressed patients treated with venlafaxine.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2003; 160: 64-75
        • Fu C.H.
        • Williams S.C.
        • Brammer M.J.
        • Suckling J.
        • Kim J.
        • Cleare A.J.
        • et al.
        Neural responses to happy facial expressions in major depression following antidepressant treatment.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2007; 164: 599-607
        • Walsh N.D.
        • Williams S.C.
        • Brammer M.J.
        • Bullmore E.T.
        • Kim J.
        • Suckling J.
        • et al.
        A longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study of verbal working memory in depression after antidepressant therapy.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2007; 62: 1236-1243
        • Kennedy S.H.
        • Evans K.R.
        • Kruger S.
        • Mayberg H.S.
        • Meyer J.H.
        • McCann S.
        • et al.
        Changes in regional brain glucose metabolism measured with positron emission tomography after paroxetine treatment of major depression.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2001; 158: 899-905
        • Smith G.S.
        • Reynolds 3rd, C.F.
        • Pollock B.
        • Derbyshire S.
        • Nofzinger E.
        • Dew M.A.
        • et al.
        Cerebral glucose metabolic response to combined total sleep deprivation and antidepressant treatment in geriatric depression.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1999; 156: 683-689
        • Brody A.L.
        • Saxena S.
        • Stoessel P.
        • Gillies L.A.
        • Fairbanks L.A.
        • Alborzian S.
        • et al.
        Regional brain metabolic changes in patients with major depression treated with either paroxetine or interpersonal therapy: Preliminary findings.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001; 58: 631-640
        • Siegle G.J.
        • Carter C.S.
        • Thase M.E.
        Use of FMRI to predict recovery from unipolar depression with cognitive behavior therapy.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2006; 163: 735-738
        • Martin S.D.
        • Martin E.
        • Rai S.S.
        • Richardson M.A.
        • Royall R.
        Brain blood flow changes in depressed patients treated with interpersonal psychotherapy or venlafaxine hydrochloride: Preliminary findings.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001; 58: 641-648
        • Goldapple K.
        • Segal Z.
        • Garson C.
        • Lau M.
        • Bieling P.
        • Kennedy S.
        • Mayberg H.
        Modulation of cortical-limbic pathways in major depression: Treatment-specific effects of cognitive behavior therapy.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004; 61: 34-41
        • Wu J.C.
        • Gillin J.C.
        • Buchsbaum M.S.
        • Hershey T.
        • Johnson J.C.
        • Bunney Jr, W.E.
        Effect of sleep deprivation on brain metabolism of depressed patients.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1992; 149: 538-543
        • Ebert D.
        • Feistel H.
        • Barocka A.
        Effects of sleep deprivation on the limbic system and the frontal lobes in affective disorders: A study with Tc99m-HMPAO SPECT.
        Psychiatry Res. 1991; 40: 247-251
        • Ebert D.
        • Feistel H.
        • Kaschka W.
        • Barocka A.
        • Pirner A.
        Single photon emission computerized tomography assessment of cerebral dopamine D2 receptor blockade in depression before and after sleep deprivation—preliminary results.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1994; 35: 880-885
        • Wu J.
        • Buchsbaum M.S.
        • Gillin J.C.
        • Tang C.
        • Cadwell S.
        • Wiegand M.
        • et al.
        Prediction of antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation by metabolic rates in the ventral anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1999; 156: 1149-1158
        • Brody A.L.
        • Saxena S.
        • Mandelkern M.A.
        • Fairbanks L.A.
        • Ho M.L.
        • Baxter L.R.
        Brain metabolic changes associated with symptom factor improvement in major depressive disorder.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2001; 50: 171-178
        • Brody A.L.
        • Saxena S.
        • Silverman D.H.
        • Alborzian S.
        • Fairbanks L.A.
        • Phelps M.E.
        • et al.
        Brain metabolic changes in major depressive disorder from pre-to post-treatment with paroxetine.
        Psychiatry Res. 1999; 91: 127-139
        • Pizzagalli D.
        • Pascual-Marqui R.D.
        • Nitschke J.B.
        • Oakes T.R.
        • Larson C.L.
        • Abercrombie H.C.
        • et al.
        Anterior cingulate activity as a predictor of degree of treatment response in major depression: Evidence from brain electrical tomography analysis.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2001; 158: 405-415
        • Willner P.
        Dopamine and depression: A review of recent evidence.
        Brain Res. 1983; 287: 237-246
        • Hopko D.R.
        • Lejuez C.W.
        • Ruggiero K.J.
        • Eifert G.H.
        Contemporary behavioral activation treatments for depression: Procedures, principles, and progress.
        Clin Psychol Review. 2003; 23: 699-717
        • Aberman J.E.
        • Ward S.J.
        • Salamone J.D.
        Effects of dopamine antagonists and accumbens dopamine depletions on time-constrained progressive-ratio performance.
        Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1998; 61: 341-348
        • Berridge K.C.
        Food reward: Brain substrates of wanting and liking.
        Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1996; 20: 1-25
        • Berridge K.C.
        • Robinson T.E.
        What is the role of dopamine in reward: Hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience?.
        Brain Res Rev. 1998; 28: 309-369
        • Blair J.R.
        • Spreen O.
        Predicting premorbid IQ: A revision of the national adult reading test.
        Clin Neuropsychol. 1989; 3: 129-136
        • Hollingshead A.B.
        Four Factor Index of Social Status.
        Department of Sociology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut1975
        • Jacobson N.S.
        • Dobson K.S.
        • Truax P.A.
        • Addis M.E.
        • Koerner K.
        • Gollan J.K.
        • et al.
        A component analysis of cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression.
        J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996; 64: 295-304
        • Dimidjian S.
        • Hollon S.D.
        • Dobson K.S.
        • Schmaling K.B.
        • Kohlenberg R.J.
        • Addis M.E.
        • et al.
        Randomized trial of behavioral activation, cognitive therapy, and antidepressant medication in the acute treatment of adults with major depression.
        J Consult Clin Psychol. 2006; 74: 658-670
        • Ernst M.
        • Dickstein D.P.
        • Munson S.
        • Eshel N.
        • Pradella A.
        • Jazbec S.
        • et al.
        Reward-related processes in pediatric bipolar disorder: A pilot study.
        J Affect Disord. 2004; 82: S89-S101
        • Hamilton M.A.
        A rating scale for depression.
        J Neurourol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1960; 23: 56-62
        • Beck A.T.
        • Steer R.A.
        • Brown G.K.
        Manual for Beck Depression Inventory-II.
        Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Texas1996
        • Jackson C.J.
        • Smillie L.D.
        Appetitive motivation predicts the majority of personality and an ability measure: A comparison of BAS measures and a re-evaluation of the importance of RST.
        Personal Individ Differences. 2004; 36: 1627-1636
        • Carver C.S.
        • White T.
        Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS scales.
        J Personal Soc Psychol. 1994; 67: 319-333
        • Lammers C.H.
        • Diaz J.
        • Schwartz J.C.
        • Sokoloff P.
        Selective increase of dopamine D3 receptor gene expression as a common effect of chronic antidepressant treatments.
        Mol Psychiatry. 2000; 5: 378-388
        • Berridge K.C.
        • Robinson T.E.
        What is the role of dopamine in reward: Hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience?.
        Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1998; 28: 309-369
        • Konarski J.Z.
        • Kennedy S.H.
        • McIntyre R.S.
        • Rafi-Tari S.
        • Soczynska J.K.
        • Mayberg H.S.
        Relationship between regional brain metabolism, illness severity and age in depressed subjects.
        Psychiatry Res. 2007; 155: 203-210
        • Kennedy S.H.
        • Konarski J.Z.
        • Segal Z.V.
        • Lau M.A.
        • Bieling P.J.
        • McIntyre R.S.
        • Mayberg H.S.
        Differences in brain glucose metabolism between responders to CBT and venlafaxine in a 16-week randomized controlled trial.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2007; 164: 778-788
        • Smith B.W.
        • Mitchell D.G.
        • Hardin M.G.
        • Jazbec S.
        • Fridberg D.
        • Blair R.J.
        • Ernst M.
        Neural substrates of reward magnitude, probability, and risk during a wheel of fortune decision-making task.
        Neuroimage. 2009; 44: 600-609
        • American Psychiatric Association
        Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
        4th ed. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC1994 (DSM-IV)
        • Swerdlow N.R.
        • Koob G.F.
        Dopamine, schizophrenia, mania, and depression: Toward a unified hypothesis of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic function.
        Behav Brain Sci. 1987; 10: 197-245
        • Anisman H.
        • Grimmer L.
        • Irwin J.
        • Remington G.
        • Sklar L.S.
        Escape performance after inescapable shock in selectively bred lines of mice: Response maintenance and catecholamine activity.
        J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1979; 93: 229-241
        • Anisman H.
        • Irwin J.
        • Sklar L.S.
        Deficits of escape performance following catecholamine depletion: Implications for behavioral deficits induced by uncontrollable stress.
        Psychopharmacology. 1979; 64: 163-170
        • Anisman H.
        • Remington G.
        • Sklar L.S.
        Effect of inescapable shock on subsequent escape performance: Catecholaminergic and cholinergic mediation of response initiation and maintenance.
        Psychopharmacology. 1979; 61: 107-124
        • Borsini F.
        • Lecci A.
        • Mancinelli A.
        • D'Aranno V.
        • Meli A.
        Stimulation of dopamine D-2 but not D-1 receptors reduces immobility time of rats in the forced swimming test: Implication for antidepressant activity.
        Eur J Pharmacol. 1988; 148: 301-307
        • Nestler E.J.
        • Carlezon Jr, W.A.
        The mesolimbic dopamine reward circuit in depression.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2006; 59: 1151-1159
        • Nestler E.J.
        Antidepressant treatments in the 21st century.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1998; 44: 526-533
        • Halaris A.E.
        • Belendiuk K.T.
        • Freedman D.X.
        Antidepressant drugs affect dopamine uptake.
        Biochem Pharmacol. 1975; 24: 1896-1897
        • Major L.J.
        • Murphy D.L.
        • Lipper S.
        • Gordon E.
        Effects of clorgyline and pargyline on deaminated metabolites of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in human cerebrospinal fluid.
        J Neurochem. 1979; 32: 229-231
        • Horst W.D.
        • Preskorn S.H.
        Mechanisms of action and clinical characteristics of three atypical antidepressants: Venlafaxine, nefazodone, bupropion.
        J Affect Disord. 1998; 51: 237-254
        • Ishihara K.
        • Sasa M.
        Mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on depression.
        Jpn J Pharmacol. 1999; 80: 185-189
        • Delgado M.R.
        • Stenger V.A.
        • Fiez J.A.
        Motivation-dependent responses in the human caudate nucleus.
        Cereb Cortex. 2004; 14: 1022-1030
        • Knutson B.
        • Cooper J.C.
        Functional magnetic resonance imaging of reward prediction.
        Curr Opin Neurol. 2005; 18: 411-417
        • Zink C.F.
        • Pagnoni G.
        • Martin-Skurski M.E.
        • Chappelow J.C.
        • Berns G.S.
        Human striatal responses to monetary reward depend on saliency.
        Neuron. 2004; 42: 509-517
        • Tricomi E.M.
        • Delgado M.R.
        • Fiez J.A.
        Modulation of caudate activity by action contingency.
        Neuron. 2004; 41: 281-292
        • Alloy L.B.
        • Abramson L.Y.
        Judgment of contingency in depressed and nondepressed students: Sadder but wiser?.
        J Exp Psychol Gen. 1979; 108: 441-485
        • Forbes E.E.
        • Hariri A.R.
        • Martin S.L.
        • Silk J.S.
        • Moyles D.L.
        • Fisher P.M.
        • et al.
        Altered striatal activation predicting real-world positive affect in adolescent major depressive disorder.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2009; 166: 64-73
        • Pizzagalli D.A.
        • Holmes A.J.
        • Dillon D.G.
        • Goetz E.L.
        • Birk J.L.
        • Bogdan R.
        • et al.
        Reduced caudate and nucleus accumbens response to rewards in unmedicated individuals with major depressive disorder.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2009; 166: 702-710
        • Gottfried J.A.
        • O'Doherty J.
        • Dolan R.J.
        Encoding predictive reward value in human amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex.
        Science. 2003; 301: 1104-1107
        • Holland P.C.
        • Gallagher M.
        Amygdala-frontal interactions and reward expectancy.
        Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2004; 14: 148-155
        • Walton M.E.
        • Devlin J.T.
        • Rushworth M.F.
        Interactions between decision making and performance monitoring within prefrontal cortex.
        Nat Neurosci. 2004; 7: 1259-1265
        • Schoenbaum G.
        • Saddoris M.P.
        • Stalnaker T.A.
        Reconciling the roles of orbitofrontal cortex in reversal learning and the encoding of outcome expectancies.
        Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007; 1121: 320-335
        • Balleine B.W.
        • Delgado M.R.
        • Hikosaka O.
        The role of the dorsal striatum in reward and decision-making.
        J Neurosci. 2007; 27: 8161-8165
        • Yamada H.
        • Matsumoto N.
        • Kimura M.
        Tonically active neurons in the primate caudate nucleus and putamen differentially encode instructed motivational outcomes of action.
        J Neurosci. 2004; 24: 3500-3510
        • Donahue C.H.
        • Seo H.
        Attaching values to actions: Action and outcome encoding in the primate caudate nucleus.
        J Neurosci. 2008; 28: 4579-4580
        • Lau B.
        • Glimcher P.W.
        Action and outcome encoding in the primate caudate nucleus.
        J Neurosci. 2007; 27: 14502-14514
        • Breiter H.C.
        • Aharon I.
        • Kahneman D.
        • Dale A.
        • Shizgal P.
        Functional imaging of neural responses to expectancy and experience of monetary gains and losses.
        Neuron. 2001; 30: 619-639
        • Schonberg T.
        • Daw N.D.
        • Joel D.
        • O'Doherty J.P.
        Reinforcement learning signals in the human striatum distinguish learners from nonlearners during reward-based decision making.
        J Neurosci. 2007; 27: 12860-12867
        • Mayberg H.S.
        • Brannan S.K.
        • Mahurin R.K.
        • Jerabek P.A.
        • Brickman J.S.
        • Tekell J.L.
        • et al.
        Cingulate function in depression: A potential predictor of treatment response.
        Neuroreport. 1997; 8: 1057-1061
        • Mulert C.
        • Juckel G.
        • Brunnmeier M.
        • Karch S.
        • Leicht G.
        • Mergl R.
        • et al.
        Rostral anterior cingulate cortex activity in the theta band predicts response to antidepressive medication.
        Clin EEG Neurosci. 2007; 38: 78-81
        • Xue G.
        • Lu Z.
        • Levin I.P.
        • Weller J.A.
        • Li X.
        • Bechara A.
        Functional dissociations of risk and reward processing in the medial prefrontal cortex.
        Cereb Cortex. 2009; 19: 1019-1027
        • Ino T.
        • Nakai R.
        • Azuma T.
        • Kimura T.
        • Fukuyama H.
        Differential activation of the striatum for decision making and outcomes in a monetary task with gain and loss.
        Cortex. 2009; ([published online ahead of print March 24])