The basal ganglia (BG) are traditionally considered to process information in parallel and segregated functional streams consisting of reward processing, cognition, and motor control areas. Moreover, microcircuits within the ventral striatum are associated with different aspects of reward processing (
1). However, a key component for developing appropriate behavioral-guiding rules is the ability not only to evaluate different aspects of reward correctly, including value versus risk and predictability, but to inhibit maladaptive choices on the basis of previous experience. This requires integration between different aspects of reward processing as well as interaction with cognitive control regions. Indeed, an emerging literature demonstrates the complexity of the network in which there is a dual organizational system, permitting both parallel and integrative network processing. This has particular relevance for chronic drug use, in which initial use activates the ventral striatum but, over time, the dorsal corticodorsal BG system becomes involved (
- Price J.L.
- Carmichael S.T.
- Drevets W.C.
Networks related to the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex; a substrate for emotional behavior?.
Prog Brain Res. 1996; 107: 523-536
2). The Sharf et al., (pages 175–183), Pissios et al., (pages 184–191), and Makris et al. (pages 192–202) articles in this issue nicely illustrate this duel concept in which changes occur following drug administration within specific parts of the reward system and across reward and cognitive systems.
- Volkow N.D.
- Wang G.J.
- Telang F.
- et al.
Cocaine cues and dopamine in dorsal striatum: Mechanism of craving in cocaine addiction.
J Neurosci. 2006; 26: 6583-6588
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- Networks related to the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex; a substrate for emotional behavior?.Prog Brain Res. 1996; 107: 523-536
- Cocaine cues and dopamine in dorsal striatum: Mechanism of craving in cocaine addiction.J Neurosci. 2006; 26: 6583-6588
- Differential response patterns in the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex to financial reward in humans: A parametric functional magnetic resonance imaging study.J Neurosci. 2003; 23: 303-307
- Reward-related cortical inputs define a large striatal region in primates that interface with associative cortical inputs, providing a substrate for incentive-based learning.J Neurosci. 2006; 26: 8368-8376
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- Neural correlates of rewarded and unrewarded eye movements in the primate caudate nucleus.J Neurosci. 2003; 23: 10052-10057
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- Feedforward inhibition of projection neurons by fast-spiking GABA interneurons in the rat striatum in vivo.J Neurosci. 2005; 25: 3857-3869
- Striatonigrostriatal pathways in primates form an ascending spiral from the shell to the dorsolateral striatum.J Neurosci. 2000; 20: 2369-2382
- Cocaine seeking habits depend upon dopamine-dependent serial connectivity linking the ventral with the dorsal striatum.Neuron. 2008; 57: 432-441
Accepted: May 30, 2008
Received in revised form: May 30, 2008
Received: May 28, 2008
© 2008 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.