Several measures of motor cortex excitability are abnormal in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). However, it is not clear whether these represent abnormalities of specific pathways or reflect a more widespread reduction of motor cortex excitability. Their significance for the clinical phenotype is also unknown.
We measured motor thresholds, input-output (I/O) curves, short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and cortical silent period (SP) with transcranial magnetic stimulation in 20 untreated GTS patients (12 uncomplicated, 4 with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, 4 with comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder) and 24 healthy subjects. Tics were rated with standard clinical scales and detailed video analysis.
Thresholds did not differ between groups. At rest, patients had shallower I/O curve slopes, despite their tics, and reduced SICI. Slopes were equal during voluntary muscle activation, as was the SP duration. Resting I/O slopes correlated, in uncomplicated GTS patients, most strongly to ratings of complex tics, hand and finger tics, and vocal tics, with shallower slopes predicting fewer tics. In complicated patients, good correlations were seen with neck/shoulder tics and vocal tics.
Corticospinal excitability in patients at rest is reduced. We suggest this is an adaptive response that may reduce release of unwanted movements.
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Published online: February 13, 2008
Accepted: December 14, 2007
Received in revised form: December 7, 2007
Received: August 27, 2007
© 2008 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.