The relationship between inflammation and depression is becoming a crucial question for psychiatry. In the early 1990s, Maes (
1) first reported increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in depression and linked that to immune irregularities in depression. Over the same period, depression was firmly established as a risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and inflammation was recognized as an important step in the progression of CAD. By the late 1990s, investigators began to ask if inflammatory abnormalities associated with depression might be a mechanism explaining the increased risk of vascular disease in depressed patients. The observation that 45% of malignant melanoma patients treated with high-dose alpha interferon developed major depression raised questions about the role of inflammatory cytokines as a source not only of vascular comorbidity but also of depressive symptoms and potentially depressive episodes themselves (
- Maes M.
- Meltzer H.
- Bosmans E.
- Bergmans R.
- Vandoolaeghe E.
- Rajah R.
- et al.
Increased plasma concentrations of interleukin-6, soluble interleukin-6 receptor, soluble interleukin-2 receptor and transferrin receptor in major depression.
J Affect Disord. 1995; 34: 301-309
- Musselman D.L.
- Lawson D.H.
- Gumnick J.F.
- Manatunga A.K.
- Penna S.
- Goodkin R.S.
- et al.
Paroxetine for the prevention of depression induced by high-dose interferon alfa.
N Engl J Med. 2001; 344: 961-966
- Raison C.L.
- Capuron L.
- Miller A.H.
Cytokines sing the blues: Inflammation and the pathogenesis of depression.
Trends Immunol. 2006; 27: 24-31
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Increased plasma concentrations of interleukin-6, soluble interleukin-6 receptor, soluble interleukin-2 receptor and transferrin receptor in major depression.J Affect Disord. 1995; 34: 301-309
- Paroxetine for the prevention of depression induced by high-dose interferon alfa.N Engl J Med. 2001; 344: 961-966
- Cytokines sing the blues: Inflammation and the pathogenesis of depression.Trends Immunol. 2006; 27: 24-31
- Inflammation, coagulation, and depressive symptomatology in cardiovascular disease-free people: The ATTICA study.Eur Heart J. 2004; 25: 492-499
- Depression, C-reactive protein and two-year major adverse cardiac events in men after acute coronary syndromes.Biol Psychiatry. 2007; 62: 302-308
- Comparison of circulating proinflammatory cytokines and soluble apoptosis mediators in patients with chronic heart failure with versus without symptoms of depression.Am J Cardiol. 2004; 94: 1326-1328
- Inflammatory markers and depressed mood in older persons: Results from the Health, Aging and Body Composition study.Biol Psychiatry. 2003; 54: 566-572
- The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood: A convergence of evidence from neurobiology and epidemiology.Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2006; 256: 174-186
- Physiology and immunology of the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway.J Clin Invest. 2007; 117: 289-296
- Increased stress-induced inflammatory responses in male patients with major depression and increased early life stress.Am J Psychiatry. 2006; 163: 1630-1633
- Clinical depression and regulation of the inflammatory response during acute stress.Psychosom Med. 2005; 67: 679-687
- Kinetic evaluation in nonhuman primates of two new PET ligands for peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in brain.Synapse. 2007; 61: 595-605
- Cellular immunity to varicella-zoster virus in patients with major depression 1.J Infect Dis. 1998; 178: S104-S108
© 2007 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.