We appreciate the opportunity to reply to the arguments raised by Dr. Carroll about the conclusions of our study published in Biological Psychiatry (
1). We demonstrated in this study that elevated rapid eye movement (REM) density can be observed not only in patients with depression but also in high-risk probands, that is, in healthy first-degree relatives of depressed patients, who developed a psychiatric disorder during follow-up. These high-risk probands had higher REM density scores than matched control subjects without a personal or family history of psychiatric disorders; affected high-risk probands, however, did not differ from other high-risk probands who did not develop a psychiatric disorder during follow-up.
- Modell S.
- Ising M.
- Holsboer F.
- Lauer C.J.
The Munich Vulnerability Study on Affective Disorders: Premorbid polysomnographic profile of affected high-risk probands.
Biol Psychiatry. 2005; 58: 694-699
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- The Munich Vulnerability Study on Affective Disorders: Premorbid polysomnographic profile of affected high-risk probands.Biol Psychiatry. 2005; 58: 694-699
- The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: Etymology and strategic intentions.Am J Psychiatry. 2003; 160: 636-645
- Affective spectrum disorder: Does antidepressant response identify a family of disorders with a common pathophysiology?.Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147: 552-564
- Prevalence, co-morbidity and correlates of mental disorders in the general population: Results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (GHS).Psychol Med. 2004; 34: 597-611
- Munich Vulnerability Study—Familial vulnerability for affective disorders: search for endophenotypes.Pharmacopsychiatry. 2003; 36: 237
Published online: May 29, 2007
© 2007 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.