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Defining the Neural Circuitry of Depression: Toward a New Nosology With Therapeutic Implications

      Defining structural, functional, and chemical abnormalities with in vivo neuroimaging methods has been a mainstay of depression research for more than 20 years (reviewed in
      • Drevets W.C.
      Neuroimaging studies of mood disorders.
      ,
      • Mayberg H.S.
      Modulating dysfunctional limbic-cortical circuits in depression: Towards development of brain-based algorithms for diagnosis and optimised treatment.
      ). Recent studies have both replicated and extended previous findings by capitalizing on advances in imaging physics, analytic strategies, and the growing ease of acquiring complementary structural and functional studies in the same individual. The field has further matured to now emphasize more than just individual regions but also their organization within integrated pathways and distributed neural networks (
      • Anand A.
      • Li Y.
      • Wang Y.
      • Wu J.
      • Gao S.
      • Bukhari L.
      • et al.
      Activity and connectivity of brain mood regulating circuit in depression: A functional magnetic resonance study.
      ;
      • Drevets W.C.
      Prefrontal cortical-amygdalar metabolism in major depression.
      ,
      • Mayberg H.S.
      Limbic-cortical dysregulation: A proposed model of depression.
      ;
      • Seminowicz D.A.
      • Mayberg H.S.
      • McIntosh A.R.
      • Goldapple K.K.
      • Kennedy S.
      • Segal Z.
      • Rafi-Tari S.
      Limbic-frontal circuitry in major depression: A path modeling metanalysis.
      ).
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