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Meta-Analysis of Structural Imaging Findings in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Published:September 04, 2006DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.06.011

      Background

      Although there are many structural neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, there are inconsistencies across studies and no consensus regarding which brain regions show the most robust area or volumetric reductions relative to control subjects. Our goal was to statistically analyze structural imaging data via a meta-analysis to help resolve these issues.

      Methods

      We searched the MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases through January 2005. Studies must have been written in English, used magnetic resonance imaging, and presented the means and standard deviations of regions assessed. Data were extracted by one of the authors and verified independently by another author.

      Results

      Analyses were performed using STATA with metan, metabias, and metainf programs. A meta-analysis including all regions across all studies indicated global reductions for ADHD subjects compared with control subjects, standardized mean difference = .408, p < .001. Regions most frequently assessed and showing the largest differences included cerebellar regions, the splenium of the corpus callosum, total and right cerebral volume, and right caudate. Several frontal regions assessed in only two studies also showed large significant differences.

      Conclusions

      This meta-analysis provides a quantitative analysis of neuroanatomical abnormalities in ADHD and information that can be used to guide future studies.

      Key Words

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