An Abrupt Transformation of Phobic Behavior After a Post-Retrieval Amnesic Agent

  • Marieke Soeter
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Amsterdam Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
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  • Merel Kindt
    Address correspondence to Merel Kindt, University of Amsterdam, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Department of Clinical Psychology, Weesperplein 4, 1018 XA Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Amsterdam Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Search for articles by this author



      Although disrupting the process of memory reconsolidation has a great potential for clinical practice, the fear-amnesic effects are typically demonstrated through Pavlovian conditioning. Given that older and stronger memories are generally more resistant to change, we tested whether disrupting reconsolidation would also diminish fear in individuals who had developed a persistent spider fear outside the laboratory.


      Spider-fearful participants received a single dose of 40 mg of the noradrenergic β-blocker propranolol (n = 15), double-blind and placebo-controlled (n = 15), after a short 2-min exposure to a tarantula. To test whether memory reactivation was necessary to observe a fear-reducing effect, one additional group of spider-fearful participants (n = 15) received a single dose of 40 mg propranolol without memory reactivation.


      Disrupting reconsolidation of fear memory transformed avoidance behavior into approach behavior in a virtual binary fashion—an effect that persisted at least 1 year after treatment. Interestingly the β-adrenergic drug did initially not affect the self-declared fear of spiders but instead these reports followed the instant behavioral transformation several months later.


      Our findings are in sharp contrast with the currently pharmacological and cognitive behavioral treatments for anxiety and related disorders. The β-adrenergic blocker was only effective when the drug was administered upon memory reactivation, and a modification in cognitive representations was not necessary to observe a change in fear behavior. A new wave of treatments that pharmacologically target the synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory seems to be within reach.


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      Linked Article

      • Harnessing Reconsolidation to Treat Mental Disorders
        Biological PsychiatryVol. 78Issue 12
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          In the 1990s, LeDoux, a prominent behavioral neuroscientist, asserted the proposition that “emotional memory may be forever” (1). Not addressed was the question how anything can last forever, especially something preserved in a gelatinous blob of cholesterol, phospholipids, glycerophosphatides, sphingomyelin, and other substances. “This too shall pass.”
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