The 16-Item quick inventory of depressive symptomatology (QIDS), clinician rating (QIDS-C), and self-report (QIDS-SR): a psychometric evaluation in patients with chronic major depression



      The 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS), a new measure of depressive symptom severity derived from the 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS), is available in both self-report (QIDS-SR16) and clinician-rated (QIDS-C16) formats.


      This report evaluates and compares the psychometric properties of the QIDS-SR16 in relation to the IDS-SR30 and the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D24) in 596 adult outpatients treated for chronic nonpsychotic, major depressive disorder.


      Internal consistency was high for the QIDS-SR16 (Cronbach’s α = .86), the IDS-SR30 (Cronbach’s α = .92), and the HAM-D24 (Cronbach’s α = .88). QIDS-SR16 total scores were highly correlated with IDS-SR30 (.96) and HAM-D24 (.86) total scores. Item–total correlations revealed that several similar items were highly correlated with both QIDS-SR16 and IDS-SR30 total scores. Roughly 1.3 times the QIDS-SR16 total score is predictive of the HAM-D17 (17-item version of the HAM-D) total score.


      The QIDS-SR16 was as sensitive to symptom change as the IDS-SR30 and HAM-D24, indicating high concurrent validity for all three scales. The QIDS-SR16 has highly acceptable psychometric properties, which supports the usefulness of this brief rating of depressive symptom severity in both clinical and research settings.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • American Psychiatric Association
        Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edition. American Psychiatric Association, Washington DC1994
        • Beck A.T.
        • Steer R.A.
        • Brown G.K.
        Beck Depression Inventory–II (BDI–II). The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX1996
        • Biggs M.M.
        • Shores-Wilson K.
        • Rush A.J.
        • Carmody T.J.
        • Trivedi M.H.
        • Crismon M.L.
        • et al.
        A comparison of alternative assessments of depressive symptom severity.
        Psychiatry Res. 2000; 96: 269-279
        • Corruble E.
        • Legrand J.M.
        • Duret C.
        • Charles G.
        • Guelfi J.D.
        IDS-C and IDS-SR.
        J Affect Disord. 1999; 56: 95-101
        • Crismon M.L.
        • Trivedi M.H.
        • Pigott T.A.
        • Rush A.J.
        • Hirshfeld R.M.A.
        • Kahn D.A.
        • et al.
        The Texas Medication Algorithm Project. Report of the Texas Consensus Conference Panel on medication treatment of major depressive disorder.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 1999; 60: 142-156
        • Cronbach L.
        Coefficient alpha and the internal consistency of tests.
        Psychometrika. 1951; 16: 297-334
        • Depression Guideline Panel
        Clinical Practice Guideline. Number 5. Depression in Primary Care, Volume 2. Treatment of Major Depression, Rockville, MD. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, San Antonio, TX1993 (AHCPR publication 93–0551)
        • First M.
        • Spitzer R.
        • Gibbon M.
        • Williams J.
        Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Clinician Version. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC1997
        • Gullion C.M.
        • Rush A.J.
        Toward a generalizable model of symptoms in major depressive disorder.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1998; 44: 959-972
        • Guy W.
        ECDEU Assessment Manual of Psychopharmacology–Revised, Rockville, MD. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, NIMH Psychopharmacology Branch, Division of Extramural Research Programs, Washington, DC1976
        • Hamilton M.
        A rating scale for depression.
        J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1960; 23: 56-62
        • Hamilton M.
        Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness.
        Br J Soc Clin Psychol. 1967; 6: 278-296
        • Hays R.D.
        • Morales L.S.
        • Reise S.P.
        Item response theory and health outcomes measurement in the 21st century.
        Med Care. 2000; 38: 28-42
        • Hulin C.L.
        • Drasgow F.
        • Parsons C.K.
        Item Response Theory. Dow Jones Irwin, Homewood, IL1983
        • Kaplan E.L.
        • Meier P.
        Non-parametric estimation from incomplete observation.
        J Am Stat Assoc. 1958; 53: 457-581
        • Keller M.B.
        • McCullough J.P.
        • Klein D.N.
        • Arnow B.
        • Dunner D.L.
        • Gelenberg A.J.
        • et al.
        A comparison of nefazodone, the cognitive-behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy, and their combination for the treatment of chronic depression.
        N Engl J Med. 2000; 342: 1462-1470
        • Landis R.J.
        • Koch G.G.
        The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data.
        Biometrics. 1977; 33: 159-174
        • McCullough J.P.
        Cognitive-behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy.
        Psychiatry Interpers Biol Processes. 1984; 47: 234-250
        • McCullough Jr, J.P.
        Treatment for Chronic Depression. Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP). Guilford Press, New York2000
        • Miller I.W.
        • Bishop S.
        • Norman W.H.
        • Maddever H.
        The modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression.
        Psychiatry Res. 1985; 14: 131-142
        • Orlando M.
        • Sherbourne C.D.
        • Thissen D.
        Summed-score linking using item response theory.
        Psychol Assess. 2000; 12: 354-359
        • Pignone M.P.
        • Gaynes B.N.
        • Rushton J.L.
        • Burchell C.M.
        • Orleans C.T.
        • Mulrow C.D.
        • Lohr K.N.
        Screening for depression in adults.
        Ann Intern Med. 2002; 136: 765-776
        • Rush A.J.
        • Carmody T.
        • Reimitz P.-E.
        The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS).
        Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2000; 9: 45-59
        • Rush A.J.
        • Giles D.E.
        • Schlesser M.A.
        • Fulton C.L.
        • Weissenburger J.
        • Burns C.T.
        The Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (IDS).
        Psychiatry Res. 1986; 18: 65-87
        • Rush A.J.
        • Gullion C.M.
        • Basco M.R.
        • Jarrett R.B.
        • Trivedi M.H.
        The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS).
        Psychol Med. 1996; 26: 477-486
        • Samejima F.
        Graded response model.
        in: van der Linden W.J. Hambleton R.K. Handbook of Modern Item Response Theory. Springer-Verlag, New York1997: 85-100
        • Suppes T.
        • Swann A.C.
        • Dennehy E.B.
        • Habermacher E.D.
        • Mason M.
        • Crismon M.L.
        • et al.
        Texas Medication Algorithm Project.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2001; 62: 439-447
        • Thissen D.
        MULTILOG User’s Guide. Scientific Software, Chicago1991

      Linked Article