Cytokine production in obsessive-compulsive disorder

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.
      Cytokine production was previously demonstrated to be reduced in untreated major affective patients. In addition, recovery from depression following clomipramine (CMI) treatment was accompanied by the restoration of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-3-like activity (IL-3-LA) to normal range. In the present study we assessed the in vitro production of IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-3-LA by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in 11 nondepressed patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) before and after 8 weeks of CMI treatment. Results were compared with those of 11 healthy subjects. CMI treatment induced a significant improvement in OCD symptoms. No alteration was observed in cytokine production in OCD patients before treatment as compared to control subjects. Moreover, 8 weeks of drug treatment had no effect on cytokine production. In conclusion, OCD per se, as well as CMI treatment, have no effect on interleukin production as measured in this study.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Allen AJ
        • Leonard HL
        • Swedo E
        Case study: New infection-triggered autoimmune subtype of pediatric OCD and Tourette's syndrome.
        J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1995; 34: 307-311
        • American Psychiatric Association
        Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
        3rd ed., rev. American Psychiatric Association, New York1987
        • Arnetz BB
        • Brenner SO
        • Levi L
        • Hjelm R
        • Petterson IL
        • Wasserman J
        • Petrini B
        • Eneroth P
        • Kallner A
        • Kvetnansky R
        • Vigas M
        Neuroendocrine and immunologic effects of unemployment and job insecurity.
        Psychother Psychosom. 1991; 55: 76-80
        • Bartrop RW
        • Luckhurst E
        • Lazarus L
        • Kiloh LG
        • Penny R
        Depressed lymphocyte function after bereavement.
        Lancet. 1977; 1: 834-836
        • Baxter LR
        • Rhelps M
        • Mazziotti J
        • Guze BH
        • Schwartz JM
        • Selin CE
        Local cerebral glucose metabolic rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder compared to unipolar depression and normal controls.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1987; 44: 211-218
        • Boyum A
        Isolation of mononuclear cells and granulocytes from human blood.
        Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1968; 21: 77-89
        • Calabrese JR
        • Kling MA
        • Gold PW
        Alterations in immunocompetence during stress, bereavement, and depression: Focus on neuroendocrine regulation.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1987; 144: 1123-1134
        • Dorian B
        • Garfinkel PE
        Stress, immunity and illness - A review.
        Psychol Med. 1987; 17: 393-407
        • Dugue B
        • Leppanen EA
        • Teppo AM
        • Fyhrquist F
        • Grasbeck R
        Effects of psychological stress on plasma interleukin-1 beta and 6,C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor alpha, anti-diuretic hormone and serum cortisol.
        Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1993; 53: 555-561
        • Glaser R
        • Kennedy S
        • Lafuse WP
        • Bonneua RH
        • Speicher C
        • Hillhouse J
        • Kiecolt-Glaser JK
        Psychological stressinduced modulation of interleukin-2 receptor gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990; 47: 1707-1712
        • Goodman WK
        • Price LH
        • Rasmussen SA
        • Mazure C
        • Fleischman RL
        • Hill CL
        • Heninger GR
        • Charney DS
        The YaleBrown obsessive-compulsive scale: development, use, and reliability.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989; 46: 1006-1111
        • Hamilton WK
        The assessment of anxiety states by rating.
        Br J Med Psychol. 1959; 32: 50-55
        • Hamilton M
        A rating scale for depression.
        J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1960; 23: 56-62
        • Irwin M
        • Patterson T
        • Smith TL
        • Caldwell C
        • Brown SA
        • Gillin JC
        • Grant I
        Reduction of immune function in life stress and depression.
        Biol Psychiatr. 1990; 27: 22-30
      1. (1995)
        • Irwin M
        Psychoneuroimmunology of depression.
        in: Blood FM Kupfer DJ Psychopharmacology: The Fourth Generation of Progress. Raven Press, Ltd., Washington DC1995: 983-998
        • Knapp PH
        • Levy EM
        • Giorgi RG
        • Black PH
        • Fox BH
        • Heeren TC
        Short-term immunological effects of induced emotion.
        Psychosom Med. 1992; 54: 133-148
        • Knudsen PJ
        • Dinarello CA
        • Storm TB
        Prostaglandins post-transcriptionally inhibit monocyte expression of interleukin-1 activity by increasing intracellular adenosine monophosphate.
        J Immunol. 1986; 137: 3189-3194
        • Kuby J
        in: 2nd ed. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York1994: 445-467
        • Maes M
        • Bosmans E
        • Meltzer HY
        • Scharpe S
        • Suy E
        Interleukin-1; A putative mediator of HPA axis hyperactivity in major depression?.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1993; 150: 1189-1193
        • Murphy DL
        • Zohar J
        • Benkelfat C
        • Pato MT
        • Pigott TA
        • Insel TR
        Obsessive-compulsive disorder as a 5-HT-subsystemrelated behavioral disorder.
        Br J Psychiatry. 1989; 155: 15-24
        • Roy BF
        • Benkelfat C
        • Hill JL
        • Pierce PF
        • Dauphin MM
        • Kelly TM
        • Sunderland T
        • Weinberger DR
        • Brmslin N
        Serum antibody for somatostatin-14 and prodynorphin 209–240 in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and advanced HIV infection.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1994; 35: 335-344
        • Sakakeeny MA
        • Greenberger JS
        Granulopoiesis longevity in continuous bone marrow cultures and factor dependent cell line generation: significant variation among 28 inbred mouse strains and outbred stocks.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 1982; 68: 305317
        • Schleifer SJ
        • Keller SE
        • Comerino M
        • Thornton JC
        • Stein M
        Suppression of lymphocyte stimulation following bereavement.
        J Am Med Assoc. 1983; 250: 374-377
        • Serrate SA
        • Schulof RS
        • Leonidaridis L
        • Goldstein AL
        • Sztein MB
        Modulation of natural killer activity lymphokine production and IL-2 receptor expression by thymic hormones.
        J Immunol. 1987; 139: 2338-2343
        • Spitzer RL
        • Williams JB
        • Gibbon M
        Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Patient Version (SCID-P).
        Biometric Research Department, New York State Institute, New York1987
        • Swedo SE
        • Rapoport JL
        • Cheslow DL
        • Leonard HL
        • Ayoub EM
        • Hosier DM
        • Wald ER
        High prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with Sydenham's Chorea.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1989; 146: 246-249
        • Weizman R
        • Laor A
        • Podliszewski E
        • Notti I
        • Djaldetti M
        • Bessler H
        Cytokine production in major depressed patients before and after clomipramine treatment.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1994; 35: 42-47