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Sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders: A longitudinal epidemiological study of young Adults

  • Naomi Breslau
    Correspondence
    Reprint requests to Naomi Breslau, Ph.D., Department of Psychiatry, Henry Ford Health Sciences Center, Detroit, MI 48202.
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, Henry Ford Health Sciences Center, Detroit, Michigan, USA

    Department of Psychiatry, Case Western University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

    Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
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  • Thomas Roth
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, Henry Ford Health Sciences Center, Detroit, Michigan, USA

    Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
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  • Leon Rosenthal
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, Henry Ford Health Sciences Center, Detroit, Michigan, USA
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  • Patricia Andreski
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, Henry Ford Health Sciences Center, Detroit, Michigan, USA
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      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.
      In a longitudinal epidemiological study of young adults, we estimated the association between sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders, cross-sectionally and prospectively. A random sample of 1200 was drawn from all 21–30-year-old members of a large health maintenance organization (HMO) in Michigan; 1007 were interviewed in 1989 and 979 were reinterviewed in 1992.
      Lifetime prevalence of insomnia alone was 16.6%, of hypersomnia alone, 8.2%, and of insomnia plus hypersomnia, 8%. The gender-adjusted relative risk for new onset of major depression during the follow-up period in persons with history of insomnia at baseline was 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2–7.0) and in persons with baseline history of hypersomnia, 2.9 (95% CI 1.5–5.6). When history of other prior depressive symptoms (e.g., psychomotor retardation or agitation, suicidal ideation) was controlled for, prior insomnia remained a significant predictor of subsequent major depression. Complaints of 2 weeks or more of insomnia nearly every night might be a useful marker of subsequent onset of major depression.
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