Advertisement

ECS-induced dopamine release: Effects of electrode placement, anticonvulsant treatment, and stimulus intensity

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.

      Abstract

      Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains an important therapy for severe depression, its mechanism of action remains elusive. We previously demonstrated that there is a significant increase of interstitial dopamine of neuronal origin in the rat striatum after electroconvulsive shock (ECS) but not after chemically (flurothyl) induced seizures. The present studies examined how electrode placement, stimulus intensity, and the administration of an anticonvulsant affect ECS-induced dopamine release in the rat striatum. Bilateral electrode placement resulted in greater dopamine release than that produced by a unilaterally applied stimulus. Pretreatment with sodium pentobarbital markedly decreased seizure duration but had no effect on the magnitude of the increase in interstitial dopamine. Finally, a higher voltage applied longer resulted in greater dopamine release without a concomitant increase in seizure duration. These data suggest that the passage of current may be directly responsible for certain ECS-induced chemical changes. These findings are discussed in the context of clinical observations that challenge the traditional view that the production of generalized seizures of adequate duration is both necessary and sufficient for a therapeutic response to ECT.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Abrams R.
        Hypothesis: A hypothesis to explain divergent findings among studies comparing the efficacy of unilateral and bilateral ECT in depression.
        Convulsive Ther. 1986; 2: 253-257
        • Abrams R.
        ECT for Parkinson's disease.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1989; 146: 1391-1393
        • Abrams R.
        Seizure generalization and unilateral electroconvulsive therapy.
        Convulsive Ther. 1991; 7: 213-217
        • Abrams R.
        Electroconvulsive Therapy.
        2nd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford1992
        • Cronholm B.
        • Ottosson J.O.
        Experimental studies of the therapeutic action of electroconvulsive therapy in endogenous depression.
        Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand Suppl. 1960; 35: 69-102
        • Damsma G.
        • Day J.
        • Fibiger H.C.
        Lack of tolerance to nicotine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.
        Eur J Pharmacol. 1989; 168: 363-368
        • Deakin J.F.W.
        Antidepressant effect of electroconvulsive therapy: Current or seizure?.
        BMJ. 1983; 126: 1083-1084
        • Enns M.
        Electrical dosage and efficacy in electroconvulsive therapy.
        Can J Psychiatry. 1991; 36: 344-348
        • Fink M.
        Convulsive Therapy: Theory and Practice.
        Raven Press, New York1979
        • Fochtman L.J.
        • Cruciani R.
        • Asio M.
        • Potter W.Z.
        Chronic electroconvulsive shock increases D-1 receptor binding in rat substantia nigra.
        Eur J Pharmacol. 1989; 167: 305-306
        • Ford A.P.D.W.
        • Marsden C.A.
        Influences of anesthetics on rat striatal dopamine metabolism in vivo.
        Brain Res. 1986; 379: 162-166
        • Kapur S.
        • Mann J.J.
        The role of the dopaminergic system in depression.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1992; 32: 1-17
        • Lerer B.
        Neurochemical and other neurobiological consequences of ECT: Implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of affective disorders.
        in: Meltzer H.Y. Psychopharmacology: The Third Generation of Progress. Raven Press, New York1987: 557-587
        • Nomikos G.G.
        • Zis A.P.
        • Damsma G.
        • Fibiger H.C.
        Electroconvulsive shock produces large increases in interstitial concentrations of dopamine in the rat striatum: An in vivo microdialysis study.
        Neuropsychopharmacology. 1990; 4: 65-69
        • Nutt D.J.
        • Gleiter C.H.
        • Glue P.
        Neuropharmacological aspects of ECT: In search of the primary mechanism of action.
        Convulsive Ther. 1989; 5: 250-260
        • Paxinos G.
        • Watson C.
        The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates.
        Academic Press, London1986
        • Robin A.
        • De Tissera S.
        A double-blind controlled comparison of the therapeutic effects of low and high energy electroconvulsive therapies.
        Br J Psychiatry. 1982; 141: 357-366
        • Sackeim H.A.
        Are ECT devices underpowered?.
        Convulsive Ther. 1991; 7: 233-236
        • Sackeim H.A.
        • Decina P.
        • Kanzler M.
        • Kerr B.
        • Malitz S.
        Effects of electrode placement on the efficacy of titrated, low dose ECT.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1987; 144: 1449-1455
        • Sackeim H.A.
        • Devanand D.P.
        • Prudic J.
        Stimulus intensity, seizure threshold, and seizure duration: Impact on the efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy.
        Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1991; 14: 804-843
        • Small J.G.
        • Small I.F.
        • Sharpley P.
        • Moore D.F.
        A double blind comparative evaluation of flurothyl and ECT.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1968; 19: 79-86
        • Westerink B.H.C.
        • Tuinte M.H.J.
        Chronic use of intracerebral dialysis for the in vivo measurement of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid.
        J Neurochem. 1986; 46: 181-185
        • Zis A.P.
        • Nomikos G.G.
        • Damsma G.
        • Fibiger H.C.
        In vivo neurochemical effects of electroconvulsive shock studied by microdialysis in the rat striatum.
        Psychopharmacology. 1991; 10: 343-350