Serum antibodies to herpes simplex virus types I and II in depressed patients

  • Jay D. Amsterdam
    Address correspondence to Jay D. Amsterdam, M.D., Depression Research Unit, University City Science Center, 8th Floor, 3600 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
    From the Depression Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA

    From The Wistar Institute of Anatomy, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • William J. Hernz
    From the Depression Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 We would like to thank Jennifer Phillips, B.S., for her assistance in performing the ELISA procedures and to Mary Hooper, B.A., for her assistance in the preparation of this manuscript.
      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Biological Psychiatry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Ahokas A.
        • Rimon R.
        • Koshiniemi M.
        Viral antibodies and interferon in acute psychiatric disorders.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 1987; 48: 194-196
        • American Psychiatric Association
        Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. APA, Washington, DC1987 (ed 3-Revised)
        • Amsterdam J.D.
        • Winokur A.
        • Dyson W.
        • Herzog S.
        • Gonzalez F.
        • Rott R.
        • Koprowski H.
        Borna disease virus: A possible cause for human affective disorders?.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1985; 42: 1093-1096
        • Amsterdam J.D.
        • Maislin G.
        • Rybakowski J.
        Possible antiviral action of lithium carbonate in reducing herpes simplex virus infections.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1990; 27: 447-453
        • Amsterdam J.D.
        • Maislin G.
        • Potter L.
        • Giuntoli R.
        • Koprowski H.
        Suppression of recurrent genital herpes infections with lithium carbonate: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
        Lithium. 1991; 2: 17-25
        • Bohn W.
        • Rutter G.
        • Hohenberg H.
        • Mannweller K.
        Inhibition of measles virus budding by phenothiazines.
        Virology. 1983; 130: 44-55
        • Carter G.I.
        • Taylor G.R.
        • Crow T.J.
        Search for viral nucleic acid sequences in the post mortem brains of patients with schizophrenia and individuals who have committed suicide.
        J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat. 1987; 50: 247-251
        • Chang T.W.
        Suppression of herpetic recurrence by chlorpromazine.
        N Engl J Med. 1975; 293: 153-154
        • Coppel R.
        • Gregoire F.
        • Thiry L.
        • Sprecher S.
        Antibody and cell mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus in psychotic depression.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 1978; 39: 266-268
        • Crow T.J.
        A reevaluation of the viral hypothesis: Is psychosis the result of retroviral integration at a site close to the cerebral dominance gene?.
        Br J Psychiatry. 1984; 145: 243-253
        • DeLisi L.E.
        • Smith S.B.
        • Hamovit J.R.
        • Maxwell M.
        Herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus antibody titers in sera from schizophrenic patients.
        Psychological Med. 1986; 16: 757-763
        • Fraser N.W.
        • Lawrence W.C.
        • Wroblewska Z.
        • Gilden D.H.
        • Koprowski H.
        Herpes simplex type I DNA in human brain tissue.
        in: Proc Natl Acad Sci. 78. 1981: 6461-6465
        • Fu Z.F.
        • Amsterdam J.D.
        • Kao M.
        • Shankar V.
        • Koprowski H.
        • Dietzschold B.
        Detection of Borna disease virus-specific antibodies from patients with affective disorders by western immunoblot technique.
        J Affective Disord. 1993; 27: 61-68
        • Gajdusek D.C.
        • Zigas V.
        Degenerative disease of the central nervous system in New Guinea.
        N Engl J Med. 1957; 257: 974-978
        • Glaser R.
        • Kiecolt-Glaser J.K.
        • Speicher C.E.
        • Holliday J.E.
        Stress, loneliness and changes in herpes virus latency.
        J Behavioral Med. 1985; 8: 249-260
        • Greer M.K.
        • Lyons-Crews M.
        • Mauldin L.B.
        • Brown F.R.
        A case study of the cognitive and behavioral deficits of temporal lobe damage in herpes simplex encephalitis.
        J Austism Developmental Disord. 1989; 19: 317-326
        • Kristensson K.
        • Nennesmo I.
        • Persson L.
        • Lycke E.
        Neuron to neuron transmission of herpes simplex virus.
        J Neurol Sci. 1982; 54: 149-156
        • Lycke E.
        • Modigh K.
        • Ross B.E.
        The monoamine metabolism in viral encephalitidies of the mouse. I. Virological and biochemical results.
        Brain Res. 1970; 23: 235-246
        • Lycke E.
        • Roos B.
        Virus infection in infant mice causing persistent impairment of turnover of brain monoamines.
        J Neurol Sci. 1975; 26: 49-60
        • Narayan O.
        • Herzog S.
        • Frese K.
        • Scheefers H.
        • Rott R.
        Behavioral disease in rats caused by immunopathological response to persistent Borna virus in the brain.
        Science. 1983; 220: 1401-1403
        • Neeley S.P.
        • Cross A.J.
        • Crow T.J.
        • Johnson J.A.
        • Taylor G.R.
        Herpes simplex virus encephalitis.
        J Neurol Sci. 1985; 71: 325-337
        • Patou G.
        • Crow T.J.
        • Taylor G.R.
        The effects of psychotropic drugs on synthesis of DNA and the infectivity of herpes simplex virus.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1986; 21: 1221-1225
        • Pelonero A.L.
        • Pandurangi A.K.
        • Calabrese V.P.
        Serum IgG antibody to herpes viruses in schizophrenia.
        Psychiat Res. 1990; 33: 11-17
        • Pogady J.
        • Kocis L.
        Theory of microstructure in hypothetical viral etiology of functional psychosis.
        in: Morozov P.V. Research on the Viral Hypothesis of Mental Disorders. S Karger AG, New York1983: 112-122
        • Ridly R.M.
        • Baker H.F.
        • Crow T.J.
        Transmission studies of psychiatric and neurological disease: Some reflections on the nature of the agent in transmissible dementia and the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease.
        in: Kurstak E. Lipowski Z.J. Morozov P.V. Viruses, Immunity and Mental Disorders. Plenum Publishing Corp, New York1987: 33-46
        • Rimon R.
        Viral aetiology in Schizophrenia?.
        Ann Clin Res. 1983; 15: 1-3
        • Rott R.
        • Herzog S.
        • Fleischer B.
        • Winokur A.
        • Amsterdam J.
        • Dyson W.
        • Koprowski H.
        Detection of serum antibodies to Borna disease virus in patients with psychiatric disorders.
        Science. 1985; 228: 755-756
        • Sprankel H.
        • Richarz K.
        • Ludwig H.
        • Rott R.
        Behavioral alterations in tree shrews (Tupaia Glis, Diard 1820) induced by Borna disease virus.
        Med Microbiol Immunol. 1978; 165: 1-18
        • Stevens J.R.
        • Langloss J.M.
        • Albrecht P.
        • et al.
        A search for cytomegalovirus and herpes virus antigens in brains of schizophrenic patients.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1984; 41: 795-801
        • Stroop W.G.
        Herpes simplex virus encephalitis of the human adult: reactivation of latent brain infection.
        Pathol Immunopathol Res. 1986; 5: 156-159
        • Taylor G.R.
        • Crow T.J.
        • Carter G.I.
        • Gamble S.J.
        Cytopathogenic CSF from neurological and psychiatric patients.
        Exp Molec Pathol. 1985; 42: 271-277
        • Torrey E.F.
        • Yolken R.H.
        • Winfrey C.J.
        Cytomegalovirus antibody in cerebrospinal fluid of schizophremic patients detected by enzyme immunoassay.
        Science. 1982; 216: 892-894
        • Whitley R.
        Herpes Simplex virus infections of the central nervous system.
        in: Herpesvirus. Alan Liss Inc, New York1984: 71-90